Cubism and Fauvism Research Summary

Gobelins L’École de L’Image, clip from “Au Lapin Agile” (2016)

Cubism is such a vastly written about subject there comes a time when I need to stop reading and start writing before I run out of time again. In previous assignment feedbacks, my tutor has suggested I break out the WHA reading notes into additional and separate blog posts about the main themes of each chapter, so while I was reading I was also compiling longer format notes for that with regards to Cubism & Fauvism especially since it forms one of the annotation tasks in upcoming Assignment 5. Since then I’ve also been reading about it in other books and websites to try and understand it. Here I’ll try and summarise some of that so that I can get it out of my head before my more focused annotation task. I loved the clip above from animation department of Paris’s Gobelins L’École de L’Image from their animated short featuring a fictitious bar brawl between Fauvists & Cubists, specifically Matisse & Picasso in Cubist and Fauvist-inspired hues and forms. see on youtube here.

Key players:

  • Matisse lead the short-lived Fauvism movement before developing it into his own mature personal style. Derain/Vlaminck/Braque and others.
  • Picasso and Braque developed Cubism together but there was a whole bunch of other Cubists who, with the help of Poet/Critic Apollinaire helped make it fashionable.
  • Everyone loved Cezanne in their own way.
Picasso (Extended Notes from WHA)

Picasso was a child prodigy. By 1900 he’d already mastered academic paintings. Blue & rose period 1903 – 1906 full of wistful poetry (P782 WHA)

In the early 20th century there was a culture of Primitivism, ‘myth of the primitive’, engendered by Gauguin (see section four) and works from Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Especially ‘interpretation of dreams ‘, published in 1900, which involved theories of the subconscious, including sexual urge & understanding instinctual side of human nature with emphasis on emotion and sensations being more important than rational thought. This had a profound effect on artists & intellectual thought of the time in fact, it transformed 20th century attitudes & values. Add to that a French colonial scandal in 1904 that rocked the newspapers, bringing Africa into focus & sparking anti colonial public outrage. French officers were hunting black people for amusement like lions, and set with gunpowder like human firecrackers, and generally being degraded and murdered.

The Paris salon work at the time was very refined, eg Monet’s waterlilies. In a direct rejection of this was Picasso. He was influenced by Cezanne, he commented that ‘around 1906 cezanne’s influence flooded everything ‘ (p771,WHA), Matisse & Iberian (pre-Roman Spanish) sculpture. He started his revolutionary work Les Demoiselles d’Avignon ,1907, a nearly flat painting of a complex of invented forms, (p771, WHA). This was a revolutionary break with Western illusionistic art.  He abandoned the traditional single viewpoint & proportions & reordered human form into geometrical lozenges & triangles. New intellectual treatment of space/ form /unexpressed emotions /states of mind. Rejected coherences of representational art. It was named after a brothel in his home town, it was originally to have a sailor and a student with a skull but they were soon dropped.

Pablo Picasso
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
Paris, June-July 1907
Oil on canvas
243.9 x 233.7 cm
Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest
© 2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Fauvre painters introduced Picasso to African art, whose influence can be seen in the right hand two figures. He said (reflecting in the 1930s), that African sculpture & masks were a creative revelation & a source of liberating energy (p771, WHA). He reflected on his first visit to a ethnographical museum in great detail almost 30 years later so it must have made a massive impact on him, despite playing it close to the vest at the time (didn’t want to be seen as too much the anarchist). He deemed African art to depend on knowing rather than seeing.

Picasso recognised the genius of self-taught Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), a naive artist, having some of Rousseau’s enormous canvases of imagined, mysterious & menacing exotic jungle landscapes in his studio. He also had many African, Iberian and Oceanic sculptures.

Notes from Cubism: a history and analysis 1907-1924 by John Golding:
Cubism Vs Fauvism

The formation of Cubism was in sharp contrast to that of Fauvism. Where the Fauves drew from a wide variety of sources, the development of Cubism, except for the joint influences of Cezanne and tribal sculpture, was remarkably self- contained. And whereas the Fauves borrowed restlessly from the art of their predecessors, the Cubists reverted to fundamental principles; they began, so to speak, from the bottom upwards. Feeling that traditional painting was exhausted, they took each of the elements that comprise the vocabulary of painting – form, space, colour, and technique – and substituted for the traditional use of every one of them a new interpretation of their own. In short Cubism was a completely new pictorial language, a completely new way of looking at the outside world, a clearly-defined aesthetic. As such it has shaped the course of almost all twentieth-century painting. (Golding, J, 1988).

The other important style of the early 1900’s in Paris was Fauvism, which came first and was essentially lead by Matisse. Contemporary critics  (Apollinaire for example) routinely compared the two, seeing a direct connection between them in that they are both moves towards abstraction, they both encourage artists to ‘to take greater liberties with visual appearances‘ (Golding, J, 1988), (in which Fauvism foreshadowed Cubism). Cubism and Fauvism approach the move towards abstraction entirely differently however. Cubism was expression through line and form, and Fauvism was expression through colour (sounds like the age old colour vs line argument popping up again in a new format).

For while Fauve painting at its most typical sprang from a free, spontaneous and often highly subjective response to the external world, and for this reason seemed occasionally to be far removed from conventional appearances, the Cubists, on the other hand, were led to still greater abstraction by the fact that their vision was conceptual and intellectual rather than physical and sensory. (Golding, J, 1988).

Interestingly, Braque was a Fauve before moving on to develop Cubism with Picasso.

Both, the Fauves (especially Matisse) and the Cubists admired Cezanne, and tribal art but they put these influences to different uses.

Between 1904 and 1906, the works of Matisse, Derain and Vlaminck all resembled each other to a certain extent and had clearly-defined characteristics in common – it was a synthesis of elements drawn from the art of the past fifty years: Impressionism, Divisionism, the decorative rhythms of Gauguin and the expressionism of Van Gogh, all contributed equally to its appearance. And since Fauvism evolved no really consistent technique of its own and was not governed by any very clearly-defined aesthetic, it was not a style that could have anything more than a very fleeting existence. It could well be interpreted as a sort of final paroxysm of post-Impressionist painting. (Golding, J, 1988)

Henri Matisse, Bonheur de Vivre (Joy of Life), 1905-06, oil on canvas, 176.5 x 240.7 cm (The Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia)

The Bonheur de Viure, while it is generally considered to be one of the key-works of Fauvism, and while it incontestably represents a summary of Matisse’s work of the previous years, shows him in fact taking the decisive step towards the formation of his own, individual, mature style. Apart from a few isolated sketches of Derain’s done under the direct influence of the painting, there are really no Fauve works quite like it. The refined, undulating outlines, the subtle blending of colour, the whole feeling of carefully calculated formal precision and intellectual control, even the arcadian symbolism, all these factors are at variance with the immediacy, the sporadic, broken or violent contours and the deliberately loose, occasionally even dislocated appearance of Fauve paintings done by Vlaminck and Derain at Chatou and in London, the Collioure landscapes of Derain and Matisse, and Matisse’s portraits of his wife painted in 1905 – the sort of painting that originally earned the movement its name. (Golding, J, 1988)

Picasso & Braque

todo finish writing up notes from Golding 1988.

Notes from Art in theory 1900-2000, an anthology

The most useful reference book I found though was Art in theory 1900-2000, an anthology of changing ideas edited by Charles Harrison & Paul Wood. The assignment calls for several aspects that various chapters in this book will provide interesting research for. First up the annotations, Cubism (made between 1908-1914) & a Fauve artist. However, it poses a problem of secondary sources. The book is an anthology made so that all the hard to find texts are in one place for students, which allows me to read texts I would not otherwise have done but often it references a translation of an original French or German text, so actually I’m getting it third hand and translated. I see the point of trying to get some of the translated texts as primary souses. However in the interest of making the assignment deadline I’ll list them as secondary sources for now. There was lots of interesting background reading but the two I most found practically useful in understanding my chosen Cubist painting were

BraqueThoughts on Painting‘ Harrison & Wood, 2003, p214/5 (which I’d already read in the WHA too) and Daniel Henry Kahnweiler The Rise of Cubism, Harrison and Wood, 2003) p211/2.

Daniel Henry Kahnweiler (1884-1976) The Rise of Cubism. This article first appeared in Zurich in 1916 after he’d had his collection taken and had retired to Switzerland. The translation presented in the book is from Robert Motherwell (Ed.) Documents of Modern Art, New York, 1949,p1,6-8,9-14. I found interesting Braques limiting of background spaces. Interesting explanation of the scheme of a Cubist painting and how the scene is built… see below. Kahnweiler was the leading contemporary art dealer for Cubism, and friends with Picasso & Braque. This allowed them not to worry about public exhibitions. Braque & Picasso started to paint in a new fashion completely independently in 1907, they got together in late 1907. Started with landscapes and still life’s boiled down to simple shapes and their position in space. 1908 saw them tackle more complex still life’s and more detailed representations of nudes. Braque introduced musical instruments. Also fruit bowls, bottles and glasses. In 1910 Braque painted a naturistic nail with shadow (trompe-l’oeil nail) trying to incorporate this real element into the unity of the painting was difficult so they started to limit the background space in their paintings. Cezanne had frequently used this trick of limiting the space. Then Braque introduced writing, another real element. Picasso had discovered open form, meaning they could do away with the illusionistic skin of objects as described by chiaroscuro.

with the representation of solid objects this could be effected by a process of representation that has a certain resemblance to geometrical drawing. This is a matter of course since the aim of both is to render the three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional plane. In addition, the painter no longer has to limit himself to depicting the object as it would appear from one given viewpoint, but wherever necessary for fuller comprehension, can show it from several sides, and from above and below.’ Daniel Henry Kahnweiler (Harrison and Wood, 2003)

 To represent an object in space:

  • start from a clearly-defined background.
  • Working towards the front, indicating each form’s position with a scheme.
  • To avoid it being a mangle of planes and geometrical shapes introduce some ‘real details’.

The viewer then mentally combines the memory of those real details with the shapes and positions to ‘see’ the scene in their head.

in other words, there exist in the painting the scheme of forms and small real details as stimuli integrated into the unity of the work of art ;there exists, as well, but only in the mind of the spectator, the finished product of assimilation, the human head for instance. There is no possibility of a conflict here, and yet the object once ‘recognised’ in the painting is now ‘seen’ with a perspicacity of which no illusionistic art is capable’ Daniel Henry Kahnweiler (Harrison and Wood, 2003).

After reading that I went back to Braque’s own ‘Thoughts on Painting’. These were jotted down in the margins of his drawings and collected & published in Pierre Reverdy’s Journal Nord-Sud, Paris, December 1917. The translation presented in the book is from Edward Fry, op. cit., pp. 147-8. Interestingly, Breton attacks these in p462/3

Selected quotes I found the most interesting/pertenant to my understanding of Clarinet and Bottle of Rum on a Mantelpiece 1911:

  • The subject is not the object; it is the new unity, the lyricism which stems entirely from the means employed.
  • The aim is not to reconstitute an anecdotal fact but to constitute a pictorial fact.
  • To be pure imitation, painting must make an abstraction of appearances
  • The senses deform, the mind forms. Work to perfect the mind. There is no certainty except in what the mind conceives
  • Trompe-l’oeil is due to an anecdotal accident that makes its effect through the simplicity of the facts.

Braque ‘Thoughts on Painting’ (Harrison and Wood, 2003)

Critic & Poet Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918), was chief cheerleader for Cubism, close friend with Picasso & highly influential in Parisian avant-garde circles in the first two decades of the 20th century.
His essay The Cubists appeared as part of his review of the Salon d’Automne in 1911, published in L’Intransigeant, 10 Oct 1911. The translated version in Harrison & Wood 2003 is taken from Leroy C, Breunig (ed.), Apollinaire on Art, London, 1972, p183. Distinguishing between the formal & monumental quantities of Cubist & Impressionist-Fauvist work this plugs directly into my annotation comparison.
He explains that cubism is a school of painters who ‘want to transform their art by returning to first principles with regard to line and inspiration he points out that many of them were previously from the Fauvist school who returned to first principles with regard to colour and composition’ (Harrison & Wood, 2003) p186

He explains that the term Cubism comes from Picasso’s showing some paintings in 1908 with simply drawn houses which face the illusion of cubes to the public, he doesn’t mention it may have come from a derisive term applied to some of Braque’s early work.

He explains away the shock of seeing paintings with shadows & contrast in after getting so used to ‘the brilliant but practically formless daubs of the Impressionists’. ‘The monumental appearance of compositions that go beyond the frivolities of contemporary art’. ‘Cubism is the most noble undertaking in French art today.’.(Harrison & Wood, 2003) P186

His next two paper also include some interesting parts on defining different aspects of Cubism and the ‘plastic’ arts. 

Author/Contemporary Critic Jacques Riviere (1886-1925) wrote extended critical discussion ‘Present Tendencies in Painting’, published in Revue d’Europe et d’Amerique, in March 1912. The translated extract in the book is taken from Fry, op. cit., pp. 75-80.

He explains that the Cubists are on the right track but haven’t quite got there yet. ‘They are precursors – clumsy, like all precursors – of a new art which is henceforth inevitable’.(Harrison & Wood, 2003) P190

He goes on to help them ‘by supplying them with the deep reasons for what they are doing’. P190

Essentially he explains that they are trying to depict ‘objects as they really areie not how one might see them. So they have to do away with illusionistic devices such as foreshortening, perspective & lighting. Light & shadow play across and object as we move around it but the light on an object is just an instance, so to perceive the object as its plastic reality we must blend many perceptions of it. Equally, perspective is an object only from one point of view and is subject to the same issues.

He outlines the mistakes he feels the Cubists have made, that instead of showing enough faves of an object to suggest volume they show all its faces, they fill the empty space in the picture with walls and fortifications. And when they dismissed lighting & perspective they subordinate nothing in the picture

 ‘They thus condemn themselves never again to select anything from reality; and since there can be no subordination without selection, the elements in their pictures relapse into anarchy and form a mad cacophony which makes us laugh… ‘  (Harrison and Wood, 2003) p193.

Interesting pointd/quotes/notes:

From the introduction section of The idea of the modern world :

In the decade before the first World War, cubism, expressionism and futurism mark different facets of a European avant-garde’s reception of the modern into an established artistic tradition whose example was predominantly French.   (Harrison and Wood, 2003) P127

It remains a central paradox of the new art that it sought its authenticity in a remote Nature, but that this repeated incantation to Nature was made under urban circumstances.  (Harrison and Wood, 2003) P127.

With cubism the situation is different. Particularly in its ‘analytic’ phase, cubism is a hermetic art. The still live and the single portrait figure – characteristic Cubist subject matter – give few clues to the storm of modernity blowing outside the studio… By a strange inversion, it seems as if the modern picture, rather than depicting the machines and buildings which made up the modern world, had internalized its modernity. (Harrison and Wood, 2003) P130.


Interesting terms re cubism : (Harrison and Wood, 2003) p130

  • New pictorial language
  • The opacity through which the world is represented
  • Technical innovation… Imbuing the form of the art with modernity.
  • Autonomous decoration of a surface
  • Penetration below surface appearance to the constants of ‘true’ reality
  • Continued referentially
  • Etc

Notes on Modernism :

Tension between two ways of conceiving art theory, the Realist view (Barnes below) and the view in which the artist is unquestionable author and the theorist attempts to follow on and document after the practice. Theoretical criticism based on understanding historical process & understanding historical process which is formed by critical experience of Art.

Clement Greenberg’s name is virtually synonymous with Modernist criticism.

Artist don’t always do what they say they’ve done.

‘representations are always built out of pre-existing cultural resources, and hence have always to be explained as developments within an ongoing cultural tradition’ Barnes, Interests and the growth of knowledge,  p19. (Harrison and Wood, 2003)

Notes on Fauvism:

Fauvism. (see Barr text p381-3).

Fauvism is a tradition of emotion & intuition in contrast to the intellectual of Cubism. Curvilinear rather than rectilinear. biomorphic or organic rather than geometrical. Decorative rather than structural. Spontaneous & mystical.

P69 Matisse, ‘Notes of  a Painter’

Originally published as Notes d’un peintre in La Grande Revue, Paris, 25 December 1908. The translation in the book is from J. D. Flam, Matisse on Art, London and New York, 1973. Pp32-40.

Many of the points he made I found more easily applied to Cubism than his own art which us strange.

He explains that he sacrifices some of the decorative charm of his paintings to plough past fleeting sensation such as the Impressionists are drawn to depict. Like the Cubists later, he is looking to express a more full interpretation of a scene or object. ‘underlying this succession of moments which constitutes the superficial existence of beings and things, which is continually modifying and transforming them, one can search for a truer, more essential character, which the artist will seize so that he may give to reality a more lasting interpretation’. (Harrison and Wood, 2003) P71.

I wonder if it is to this point that Picasso refer when he said ‘in my opinion to search means nothing in painting. To find, is the thing.’ (Harrison and Wood, 2003) p215 ‘Picasso Speaks’ an interview in 1923 where he remains sceptical of attempts to intellectualise Cubism. ‘We all know that Art is not truth. Art is the lie that makes us realise truth at least the truth that is given us to understand…. If he [an artist] only shows in his work that he has searched and re-searched, for the way to put over lies he would never accomplish anything. ‘ (Harrison and Wood, 2003) p215/6

Back to Matisse, he says some things which can be applied easily to Cubism, for example when talking of sculpture in Luxembourg, ‘and yet movement thus understood corresponds to nothing in nature: when we capture it by surprise in a snapshot, the resulting image reminds us of nothing that we have seen. Movement seized while it is going on is meaningful to us only if we do not isolate the present sensation either from that which precedes it or that which follows it.’ (Harrison and Wood, 2003) p71/2

This reminded me of nude descending a staircase, which I’d seen in WHA.

What I dream of is an art of balance, of purity and serenity  devoid of troubling or depressing subject-matter. Matisse, (Harrison and Wood, 2003) P73.

In his article, he refutes some criticism from M. Peladan in the way the Fauves dress like ordinary people and that they don’t follow the ‘rules’ of painting. He lays out his opinion on the lack of universal rules and his opinion of Raphael, Titian, Manet and Renoir. He thinks artists should be of their time and not slavishly copy the greats.

Notes from – The fauves: the reign of colour By Jean – Louis Ferrier

As offspring of Newton and Cheverell, the fauves explored the spectrum ;for them, the colours were not only mere stimuli on the retina but could also express feelings. (Ferrier, 1995) P9

The first exhibition of Fauvism, and where they got their name was in the 1905 Salon d’Automne, they were all in room VII, 2 by Charles Camoin, 5 by Andre Derain, 4 by Henri Matisse, 5 by Henri Manguin, 5 by Albert Marquet and others by Maurice Vlaminck, Van Dongen, Frieze, Puy and Valtat. A mixture of subjects, nudes, landscapes, still life, and portraits. Additionally a huge jungle picture by Henri Rousseau. Added for contrast in the middle of all that colour they put a traditional marble bust and bronze Statue by Albert Marque.

Critic Louis Vauxcelles said of the spectacle “C’est Donatello chez les fauves” (it’s Donatello amid the wild beasts) and the name stuck. Everyone in the room was hated by the public and ridiculed by the critics. Only Andre Gide recognised it was ‘a by-product of theories’. The same public was only just coming to accept the ‘palette scrapings’ of Impressionism. This new art was an evolution too far for them.

The Fauvist movement was a natural progression of the two movements that succeeded impressionism, Neo-Impressionism & Syntheism (ie the works of Seurat, Van Gogh and Gauguin). Theories of Chevreul that inspired the former, colours placed next to each other appear more vivid on the viewer’s retina. Eg red/green, blue/orange and yellow/violet. These colour combinations can be seen throughout annotation 2. And the large areas of flat colour of the latter.

Vlaminck and Derain for example, aware of their similarities, used colour as “sticks of dynamite“‘ (Ferrier, 1995) P20

By 1908, the public was coming around to the fauves and with a slightly younger generation of critics, people were starting to understand it a little. Matisse and Marquet were even on the jury, which caused a new scandal when they rejected Braque’s new work. ‘Matisse, when asked by Vauxcelles which paintings had been refused, answered “Braque sent canvases covered with little cubes.“‘ (Ferrier, 1995) p23 Braque exhibited them in Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler’s little gallery instead. ‘The avant-garde had changed sides and cubism was born’. (Ferrier, 1995) P23

Braque biography

Born in Argenteuil, France in 1882, died in Paris 1963. He started as a house painter, taking courses at the Academie Humbert. He rented a studio in Antwerp with Friesz in 1906 doing Fauvism. 1908-1914 he was invented Cubism with Picasso. He went into the army for WWI, and got injured and discharged in 1917 with temporary blindness which meant he couldn’t paint again for a while. From 1943 he started making massive canvases and sculpture.

See also research put straight into the Assignment annotations and the assoicated painting reviews here and here.


Ferrier, J. (1995). The Fauves. Paris: Terrail.

Golding, J. (1988) Cubism :a history and analysis 1907-1924. Harvard University press

Harrison, C & Wood, P (Ed.). (2003) Art in theory 1900-2000, an anthology of changing ideas. Blackwell publishing

Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing


Essential Reading WHA: Post-War to Post-Modern

Political, economic or social factors

WW2 ended 1945, with it European imperialism/overseas rule/economic power. NY overtakes Paris as cultural capital of West. Many intellectuals fled to US during 30s, including Einstein, artists, musicians & Bauhaus figures (as previously mentioned) who established Institute of Design, Chicago. After fall of France in 1940, many more, eg Surrealists & Purist-abstracters eg Leger, Mondrian, thus transferring the 2 major movements. O’Keeffe & others became cultural heroine for new liberated women. Horror of USA atomic bombing Hiroshima, 1945. Mid-50s Abstract expressionism ‘could be interpreted as an expression of American liberalism in contrast with the Social Realism prescribed in the Soviet Bloc’ p843. Berlin wall erected in 1961, Capitalist Realism of West Germany forming the front line against soviet bloc Socialist Realism. Consumer affluence & optimism of Kennedy years replaced post-war austerity in 1960s bringing changes in artistic climate. Home TV sets with satellite transmission from 1962. Kennedy assassinated 1963. Martin Luther King assassinated 1968. Space race between US & USSR. 1st man in space 1961, man on moon 1969. 1960s Revolutionary Cuba, Che Guevara (killed 67 guerrilla fighting against right wing Bolivian gov).Offbeat generation, student uprisings of 1968. Golub’s raw disturbing pictures only became acceptable after nightly TV reports of Vietnam War (1961-73), intended to shock, giant images seen in galleries not just on banal TV. Art no longer needed a gallery in 60s/70s, exhibitions/works in catelogs/books/magazines. Art market denied a ‘unique object to sell’ p855 eg Dan Graham’s Figurative in Harper’s Bazaar, 1965. Art just another commodity. Mass media, ‘rampantly consumerist society’ p855 & fledgling computer technology in 70s. Greenberg’s ‘extreme version of modernism can now be seen as belonging essentially to the cold War years’. P844

Changes to status or training of artists

Che Guevara, 1968. Painting by Andy Warhol

NY painters of 40’s/50’s of similar age & all knew each other but didn’t form a movement.  NY art school of Hans Hofmann (1880-1966) was central melting pot of Cubism, Fauvism & abstraction. Work of artists such as Warhol & Hamilton foreshadowed importance of Photography from 1980s onwards eg Gilbert and George, Cindy Sherman etc. Many commercial photographers turned to documentary/art, eg Warhol, Arbus etc. Che Guevara, 1960, Korda is best known image of time & most famous revolutionary image ever, interesting it is a photograph (not any other form of art). Reproduced in every format imagined rather writing since.

Alberto Korda – Che Guevara, 1960, Photograph
This 5-story relief sculpture of it can be found next to the Plaza of the Revolution in central Havana, Photo by Suzy Walker-Toye
Artists unknown, Graffiti, Havana, Photo by Suzy Walker-Toye

Development of materials and processes

Hofmann experimented with ‘drip’ techniques & mixed media. Pollock furiously abandoned trying/failing to master traditional painting techniques & externalised struggle by making act of painting its own subject by pouring/throwing/dripping paint onto huge unstretched canvas on floor with his whole body. Liberated from representation, a record of his emotions in his transported state engaging with paint, creating texture eg Autumn Rhythm, 1950. Equally colossal, Rothko soaked paints into surface leaving opulent colour & canvas texture which he thinly scumbled over creating effect of luminous grandeur p838. Matisse coloured paper in gouache, then cut & arranged them. Created book: Jazz, 1947 & large scale cutouts eg The Snail, 1953. Joyous & lyrically ebullient. He said ‘cutting into colour reminds me of the direct action of the sculptor carving stone’ p841.

The Snail 1953 Henri Matisse 1869-1954 Purchased with assistance from the Friends of the Tate Gallery 1962
Jasper Johns – Three Flags, 1958, Encaustic on canvas, 77.8 × 115.6 × 11.7 cm, © Jasper Johns/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY

Helen Frankenthaler (b. 1928) stained unsized canvas by pouring on pigment. Jasper Johns Three Flags, 1958, painted in Old Master technique of encaustic, giving a ‘fine-art’ surface, not clear if he was mocking the flag, art or sophisticated public. 1950’s Leon Golub used technique of scraping/roughening unstretched canvas with a meat cleaver to give impression of tendons/muscles in his lifesize paintings of fleshless figures. Rubbed raw. Rauschenberg adapted frottage technique to transfer newspaper images using silk-screen stencilling by inking/screening directly onto canvas in Dadaist grid-like patterns, adding drips/swirls of paint. He also participated with Cage in 1 of 1st ‘happenings’, anticipating Beuys p845 and experimented with future uses of technology in art. Andy Warhol 1st to use silk-screen technique for painting, & got his assistants in the ‘factory’ to make his works. Donald Judd also had his work fabricated for him. Liechtenstein painted in closely spaced dots to simulate Benday pattern shading of comics/commercial art to achieve impersonal look. Downplay on craft skills/materials for conceptual art. Planning/decisions upfront & execution perfunctory. Texts, maps, plans, images etc found in conceptual art termed ‘information’, linking it to mass media & fledgling computers. Photographs had significant place as carrier of concept, undermining accepted ideas of photographic art & silver gelatine print eg Vito Acconi (b 1940), Edward Rusha (b 1937) & John Bernhard (b 1931).

Bruce Nauman – Self Portrait as a Fountain, Eleven Color Photographs, 1966-67, printed 1970, Chromogenic print, Image 49.5 × 59.1 cm, Edition 7/8, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, © artist or artist’s estate

Video commercially available 1960’s, Bruce Nauman (b 1941) filmed himself walking around a square in his studio in Minimalist spoof. He used his body for his work eg Various flexible materials separated by layers of grease with holes the size of my waist and wrists. See Process Art below.



Styles and movements

Early pre-war Abstract style of several US loner ‘gifted mavericks’ such as Arthur Garfield Dove (1880-1946) & Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986). Doves ‘extraction’, 1910 among earliest abstracts anywhere. Nature’s elements simplified to colour/force lines, eg Fog Horns 1929.

Arthur Dove – Foghorns, 1929

NY painters of Abstract Expressionism in 40’s/50’s had no common style eg Jackson Pollock (1912-56), Franz Kline (1910-62), Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Ad Reinhardt (1913-67), Robert Motherwell (1915-91), Adolph Gottlieb (1903-74), Mark Rothko (1903-70), Clyfford Still (1904-80) & Barnett Newman (1905-70) but common ‘feverish energy & extremism as typically American as their taste for the colossal’ P84.1st group labelled by critics as Action Painters, they enacted their expression onto canvas. Hoffman created form with colour tensions. Arshile Gorsky (1905-48) catalyst between European & American painting, combining Hoffmans abstract painterliness with surrealism. Disturbed/melancholy loner Pollock created ‘portable murals’ with sense of limitlessness, delicacy & neurotic volatility p836. Similarly, Kline ‘painted experiences’ NY city scenes & abstract B&W paintings. De Kooning remained somewhat representational, theme of human figure but more abstract action works harsh/raw colour/thick texture of reworked paint eg Excavation 1950.

Willem de Kooning
American, born Netherlands, 1904–1997
Excavation, 1950
© 2017 The Willem de Kooning Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

2nd group, colour-field painters. Clyfford Still, similar to Pollock in size of work & temperament & reoriented away from European traditions. Asymmetric planes in thick paint, feeling of density but not space, earthy colours & scaly texture lend primitive power of American West landscapes. He, Rothko & Gottlieb defined Abstract expressionism in letter to NY times in ‘43. ‘simple expression of complex thought’ p837 Wanted to reassert the picture plane, revealing truth with flat forms & impact with large size. Rothko, just as depressed (suicide in 1970), later works deeply religious/spiritual. Demand silence & complete viewer absorption (as I can attest having seen some in person). Not interested in colour relationships but conveying human emotion. Similarly, Newman wanted art with human significance, unknowable & sublime. Eg vir heroicus sublimis, 1950,& Broken Obelisk, 1963/7.

Barnett Newman – Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950-51 , Oil on canvas, 242.2 x 541.7 cm, © 2017 Barnett Newman, Foundation / Artists rights
Society (ARS), New York
David Smith – Hudson River Landscape, 1951, Welded painted steel and stainless steel, 123.8 × 183.2 × 44 cm, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, © Estate of David Smith/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY

‘Abstract configurations carrying implications akin to meaning and with references to human hopes and anxieties’ p839 also created by Sculptor David Smith who made 3D scenes enclosed in ‘space frames’, approached from front like a picture eg Hudson River Landscape, 1951. Later work eg Cubi series, started new era in US sculpture. In contrast to Abstract Expressionism, ‘blatantly representational’ p843 images of Jasper Johns (b 1930) & Robert Rauschenberg (b 1925) were known as Neo-Dada. Incorporated commonplace objects such as flags that ‘suggest the world rather than suggest the personality’ p843. John’s later work becoming even more paradoxical/complex eg Periscope (Hart Crane), 1963. Rauschenberg ‘bed’, 1955, was his own bed, smeared with paint (action painter like) & stood against gallery wall.

Robert Rauschenberg, Monogram, 1955-59, Moderna Museet, Stockholm. Purchase 1965 with contribution from Moderna Museets Vänner/The Friends of Moderna Museet.

His ‘combines’ paintings incorporated real 3d objects & collage eg Monogram, 1959. Both artists questioned meaning of Art. Meanwhile in Europe, Matisse summed up his life quest for naive art with his large scale abstract cut outs. Alberto Giacometti (1901-66) made bronzed figures seen from front, famous elongated figures anticipating Existentialist philosophy with aim to capture essence of personality rather than likeness.


Morris Louis – Alpha Phi, 1960-1961, 102 x 180 1/2 in. (259.1 x 458.5 cm), Acrylic resin (Magna) on canvas, du400, © 2014 MICA Rights administered by Artists Rights Society (ARS)

Frankenthaler broke through from Abstract Expressionism to pioneer Post-Painterly Abstraction/Colour Field Painting. Cool, elegant & restrained. Morris Louis (1912-62), Jules Olitski (b 1922) & Kenneth Noland (b. 1924). Louis ‘unfurled’ series, 1961 allowed paint to drip down, & soak into, channels in folded fabric, juxtaposed hues creating ‘optical phenomenon of projection & recession’ p843. This style justified Greenberg’s Formalism. Spiritual unease of 1960s conveyed by geometrical abstraction & optical illusion of Op (Optical) Art eg Bridget Riley.

Roy Lichtenstein – Big Painting No. 6, 1965, 235 cm × 330 cm

Another rejection of Abstract Expressionism was Pop Art, defined as ‘making impersonality a style’ p845. eg Big Painting No. 6, 1965 by Roy Lichtenstein (1923-97) ironically depersonalizes their brushwork, commenting on their ‘cult of the gestural manipulation of paint as a means of unfettered, spontaneous self-expression’ p845 Style emerged simultaneously in UK & US.

Just what was it that made yesterday’s homes so different, so appealing? (upgrade) 2004 Richard Hamilton 1922-2011 Presented by the artist 2004

1st pop art work, collage (of pinup, TV, pulp romance, consumerism etc) ‘Just what is makes today’s homes so different? So appealing?’, 1956 by Richard Hamilton (b.1922) was aiming at new witty, low-cost & glamorous art, not ‘sardonic comment on our society’ p846 as critics took it. Mass media images not glamorous for Americans so US pop art more complex/ambivalent/awkward/provocative. Eg Claes Oldenburg (b 1929), Giant Hamburger, 1962, 2m across foam filled sailcloth burger, brings focus of Art to something ordinary that doesn’t look like art. Andy Warhol (1928-87) too. Commercial artist turned painter/sculptor/film-maker/writer/creator of a Pop Lifestyle. ‘He stood all theories of mass culture on their heads, notably the Marxist predictions of Walter Benjamin concerning the suffocation of art in the glut of commercial images’ p846. Repeating images of commonplace/infamous/glamorous echoed mass media making subject meaningless. ‘nihilism of the contemporary media-saturated world’ p847. Pop sensibilities named Nouveau Realisme in France by critic Pierre Restany in attempt to reassert Paris as central in contemporary art world. Torn posters of Raymond Hains & Jacques de la Villegle, ‘zen-inspired theatrics of Yves Klein’ p847 & accumulated rubbish of Arman. Who literally blew apart relationship of artist/patron/ gallery with White Orchid, 1963 (he dynamited patrons car as commission), alluding to cultural issue of obscuring horrors by spectacles.

Arman (Armand Pierre Fernandez) –
White Orchid , 1963, Exploded sports car mounted on wooden plate, MMK Museum of Modern Art Frankfurt am Main, Photo © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2017, Axel Schneider
250 x 510 x 130 cm
Yves Klein – IKB 79, 1959, Purchased 1972
Diane Arbus, Boy with a straw hat waiting to march in a pro-war parade, N.Y.C., 1967, National Gallery of Australia

Klein sought weightless existence in a spiritual void p847, Klein blue dominated his paintings/sculptures. German version was Capitalist Realism, artists Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, Konrad Lueg, Wolf Vostell used images from media. Tensions of the time expressed most memorably by photography eg Boy with a straw hat… 1967, by Diane Arbus (1923-71). Attention to misfits & twins. Walker Evans harsh realities. Book The Americans by Robert Frank. Garry Winogrand (1928-84) 50s & 60s split by public event images & individual spontaneous, detached work. 70s large format work by Stephen Shore, after working in Warhol’s factory, recalled 19thC landscape pioneers & transformation into contemporary America eg Uncommon Places. Alberto Korda (1928-2001), Che Guevara, 1960, ‘extremely forceful projection of a peculiarly mid-20th century hero’ p851. ‘Self-consciously AmericanMinimalismaimed at complete purity & integrity, the reduction of Art to that which is intrinsic to its medium’ p851.

[title not known] 1967 Frank Stella born 1936 Purchased with assistance from an anonymous donor 2000
Frank Stella, Black paintings, pinstripes eliminating any individual gesture/expression. Donald Judd (1928-94) pointed to a tendency towards 3d – Stella’s stripes, Rauschenberg’s combines, John’s Targets, his own minimal sculptures of rectangular forms in mathematical sequences eg Fibonacci. Art is what an artist says it is. Similar mechanical precision used by Robert Morris (b 1931) & Carl Andre (b 1935), eg Equivalents.

Equivalent VIII 1966 Carl Andre born 1935 Purchased 1972

Andre foreshadowed Conceptual art, creating for a specific installation/user interaction/experience, transformation from form/structure to place. Unfolding relationship of viewer & work/environment over time challenges traditional art timelessness. Dan Flavin (1933-96) commercially available fluorescent lights bring colour to gallery space with nod to Russians. John McCracken (b 1934) used colour to build his forms (pigmented resin on fibreglass-resined wood). Conceptual Art de-emphasis of material aspects such as uniqueness/permanence, attractiveness, aka dematerialisation, precursors including 50s happenings, Japanese Gutai artists & Fluxus group. Idea over making, emotionally & intellectually interesting to viewer. If concept was clear then actual implementing artist irrelevant. Questions on nature of Art eg One and Three Chairs by Joseph Kosuth (b 1945).

Joseph Kosuth – One and Three Chairs, 1965, Wood folding chair, mounted
photograph of a chair, and mounted photographic enlargement of the dictionary definition of “chair” , Chair 82 x 37.8 x 53 cm, photographic panel 91.5 x 61.1 cm, text panel 61 x 76.2 cm, Larry Aldrich Foundation Fund, © 2017 Joseph Kosuth / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York, Courtesy of the artist and Sean Kelly Gallery, New York
Mario Merz – Objet Cache-Toi, 1968, Iron rods, wire mesh, linen bags filled with wooden wool, 5-piece fluorescent lamp marking, ©Mario Merz, VG Picture Art, Bonn 2016, Photo: Helge Mundt

Photography intrinsic to style to spread ideas. Bernhard commentary on media saturated society full of hidden/paradoxical meanings. European style Arte Poverty, poor/impoverished art, used cheap/available materials. Straightforward/poetic rejection/challenge of glorious artistic tradition eg Igloos covered with glass, Objet Cache Toi, 1968 by Mario Merz (1925-2003) & his use of Fibonacci to portray human nomadic journeys. Michelangelo Pistoletto (b 1933) moved from 2 to 3d in Minus Objects series. Pistoletto’s ‘Orchestra of Rags’ created using rags, singing kettles and glass, challenged considered norms of art. Process Art focused on visibly showing process of work,

Eva Hesse – Hang Up, 1966, Acrylic paint on cloth over wood; acrylic paint on cord over steel tube, 182.9 x 213.4 x 198.1 cm, The Art Institute of Chicago, Through Prior Gifts of Arthur Keating and Mr and Mrs Edward Morris © Estate of Eva Hesse

‘passage of time to experience of art’ p857 eg Richard Serra’s molten lead quickly solidifying as splashes on gallery floor, Splashing, 1969. Barry Le Va (b 1941) ‘distributional sculpture’, Eva Hesse (1936-70) used pliant impermanent materials, hung from ceiling, or lent against wall, almost Dadaist parody of picture frame, eg Hang Up. Body Art ‘practices threw attention onto physical activity & presence of artist’s body’ p857 eg Nauman’s work. Related to earlier performance art of happenings & spectacles but with deeper suspicion of Art market where they hoped to elude the system.

James Turrell – Roden Crater project, 1974

Art moved out from galleries into landscape which became medium/materials for artistic expression in Earth & land art. Nothing comparable since Peruvian earthworks BC. Eg Spiral Jetty, in Utah’s great salt lake by Robert Smithson (1928-73). Mainly American responses to landscape. Walter De Maria (b 1935) lightning field in New Mexico. Huge ‘transient works’, often wrapping coastline/buildings in fabric, by Christo Javacheff (b 1935) often survive only as concepts with detailed plans etc. James Turrell (b 1943) took over a volcano for Roden Crater project, 1974 to function as observatories for celestial events. Gordon Matta-clark (1943-78) urban projects condemned buildings eg splitting houses open for view in Splitting, 1974. Anti-monuments. Photo realism, rejection of minimalism but just as targeted. Trompe l’oeil of flat snapshot of illusionistic space/images. Richard Estes (b 1936), Chuck Close (b 1940), gigantic heads. No connection to New Image /New Figurative painters of 1960s US. Representation had never been abandoned in Europe eg Balthus (Balthazar Klossowski de Rola 1908-2001), Francis Bacon (1909-91) & David Hockney (b 1937). Bacon used existing images as starting point to open imagination/feelings eg Three studies for a crucifixion, 1962. US dismissed his work as ‘decadent, irrelevantly European’ p862.

Francis Bacon – Three Studies for a Crucifixion, 1962, Oil with sand on canvas, three panels
198.1 x 144.8 cm each, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, © 2017 The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved./ARS, New York/DACS, London

Hockney settled in California, artistic /sexual liberation. In US return to figurative seen as rejection/challenge, launched 1967 by Abstract Expressionist Philip Guston (1913-80), who also invented New Deal Style murals mid-century. His New Image painting, grotesque figures with deliberately brash handling, subjects: Ku Klux Klan, menacing still lifes & huge heads. Leon Golub (1922-2004) Chicago ‘Monster school’, obsessed with human corruption. Cy Twombly (b 1929) art that seems incomplete, scattered memories/musings, combination of pictures, words, numbers, lines.

Architecture :

Modernism/Post-Modernism, last stage of modernism seen as purist trends from post painterly abstraction to minimalism during 70s. Charged as ‘artistic narcissism’ p865 sculpture like architecture, minimal grid emblem eg So LeWitt’s Untitled Cube, 1968. Post modernists such as John Perrault were ‘sick to death’ of silent cubes, white walls & monotonous curtain wall metal & glass skyscrapers eg Lever House, NY, (1951-2) by Gordon Bunshaft (1909-90) p865. Polarized most in architecture, Mies van der Rohe’s purist International Style designs implemented in opportunistic post war US. Not everyone a fan, Dr Farnsworth tried to sue him because her house too expensive to live in. Le Corbusier & Frank Lloyd Wright also felt hostility after 1945.

Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp
Photo : Cemal Emden 2015 © ADAGP

Expressionism crept into formers designs about 1950 eg Church Notre Dame du Haut, Ron chap, curves, irregular plan & biometric forms. High Court building, Chandigarh, India, 1956, less conflict between plasticity & geometrics. Powerfully monumental. These sparked worldwide Brutalist style, sculptural, irregular, rough, aggressive & chunky, eg Paul Rudolph (1918-97), James Stirling (1926-92), Kenzo Tange (b 1913) etc. 70s publications by Venturi & Scott-Brown sparked Post-modernism, more democratic, less idealistic/earnest eg Piazza d’Italia, 1978/9, New Orleans, Charles Willard Moore. International Modernism/revisionist, blend of several historically based styles eg Michael Graves (b. 1934), Public Service Building, Portland, Oregon, 1979/82, skyscraper with art deco/Nouveau trimmings & classical elements. Europeans Ricardo Bofill (b 1939) & Aldo Rossi (1931-97) autonomous architecture derived from past. Former, grandiose public housing and latter taken from Boullee & mostly remained unrealised. English founded High Tech, a concept/approach to architecture more than style, opposed to Postmodernism. Use modern technology to create precision engineered architecture eg Lloyd’s of London, 1986 by Richard Roberts (b 1933) & Hong-Kong & Shanghai bank, Hong Kong, 1986, by Norman Foster.

Inside and outside influences

Dove influenced by Romantics & nature. Surrealist techniques influenced Abstract expressionists. Influential teaching of Hoffman.  Pollock influenced by south-west Indian art/sand painting, Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917), apprenticeship with Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975), social realism of Mexican artists David Alfaro Siqueiros (1898-1974)/Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949), Picasso & Surrealism. David Smith influenced by open form of Picasso, Gonzalez, Surrealism, abstract expressionism, crude metals, large machines & experiences as assembly line welder. Giacometti also influenced by surrealism, Picasso, Gonzalez, Calder, post-war climate & relationship to brother eg Head of Diego II, 1955. Matisse continued to influence all sorts of artists eg Louis. Jasper Johns influenced by Hart Cranes labyrinthine poem ‘Cape Hatterass’ & Duchamp. Rauschenberg influenced by Duchamp, composer John Cage & home TV sets. Andre influenced by Brancusi’s plinth separation, ‘laying Brancusi flat’ p852 Minimalism influenced by Duchamp, Russians Malevich & Tatlin (eg Flavin), & Bauhaus teaching of Josef Albers (1888-1976). Duchamp influences Conceptual/Process artists, art can be made from anything. Eg Nauman’s Self-portrait as a fountain, 1966. Walker Evans inspired new generation of photographers. Stephen Shore influenced Thomas Struth & Andreas Gursky. Photographers eg John Baldessari became influential on later developments and students. Pistoletto influenced by Picasso & minimalists. New Deal style influenced by Mexican Muralists & American Regionalists eg Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975). Twombly influenced by oriental art/scrolls & Mediterranean culture. Architect Charles Willard Moore (1925-93) inspired by Disneyland.

Critics, thinkers and historians

Critic Harold Rosenberg unofficial spokesman of Action Painters, 1952. Existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre wrote that Giacometti’s sculptures would come closer than any previous artist ‘to achieving the impossible when his portraits would affect us with all the force of a corporeal presence’ p841. Critic Clement Greenberg wrote of artistic possibilities after Abstract Expressionism calling for a more formalist/disciplined art & essential qualities of flatness & it’s delimit action. He defined formalism, saw art object as self-contained, independent of maker/viewer/cultural context. Art characterised by surface & pattern. Critic Gene Swenson commented that British Pop Art looked like it was ‘made by librarians’ p846. Robert Morris texts on minimalist sculpture & the anti-form. Critic Lucy Lippard commented on late 1960’s/early 1970’s ’dematerialisation’ of the art object p853. Sol LeWitt wrote ‘Paragraphs on Conceptual Art’, 1967. Italian critic Germano Celant coined the term Arte Povera in 1967. Jane Jacobs Death and life of Great American Cities, 1961,appeal to return to traditional urban life. Critic Lewis Mumford wrote against Van der Rohe in The Case against modern architecture, 1964. 70s publications Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture by Robert Venturi (b 1925) & Learning from Las Vegas by Denise Scott Brown (b 1931).


I feel like information overload. I’m sure my notes are massively overboard as I struggled to get to grips with the concepts. I’ll have to be ruthless for the assignment. This chapter tied up a few things but I think was slightly confusing too. Clearly this and the last couple of chapters have been talking about Modernism but this is the first time that’s really laid out. The difference between Modernism and Formalism is confusing, if I’m understanding correctly Formalism is a subset, a radicalisation of Modernism. Postmodernism is really only touched on by architecture. Seems like architecture has been the turning force for both thou, with Modernism clearly embodied by Gropius & Le Corbusier in the 1920s and the post modernisation being pushed again by architects.

Clearly in this century artists have been struggling with the need to ‘feel of their own time’ (p844) and reject the past in the process.


Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing

Essential Reading WHA: Between the Two World Wars

Political, economic or social factors

Western civilisation never recovered from WWI, ending long period of progress/prosperity & cutting short creative genius of late 19th/20thC. Artist were less innovative/adventurous. Paris still centre of haute couture/arts but lost influence in other cultural/scientific fields p799. In post-WW1 Germany, belief artists could help new social conditions, The Bauhaus, launched 1919 by Walter Gropius, centre of this aspiration in Europe.

Russian Revolution, 1917. Revolutionary exiles, artists & intellectuals flocked to wartime Switzerland or US (before it joined war in 1917). After the revolution, avant-garde art flourished in Russia, supported by officials such as Lunacharsky & Trotsky. Constructivism short lived once Lenin’s New Economic Policy introduced in 1921 & artists left Russia, by 1932 artistic groupings suppressed.

Dada/Surrealist movements political implications for new artistic/intellectual/social order by mocking current culture eg Max Ernst (1891-1976) entrance to 1920 exhibition thru toilet. Surrealists had connections to political revolution including Communism. Meanwhile Braque/Matisse celebrated bourgeois values eg The moorish screen, 1921/2.

Henri Matisse – The Moorish Screen, 1921
Oil on canvas, 1921, 91.9 x 74.3 cm
Philadelphia Museum of Art: Bequest of Lisa Norris Elkins, 1950
© Succession H. Matisse, Paris / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Communist Diego Rivera (1866-1957) played key role in ‘cultural relations between North and South America’ p805. Most relevant artist in hotly debated indigenous/national vs international styles between fascists & communists in Europe & US. He & Freda joined Mexican national movement after end of 10yr Mexican civil war. Gov wanted public art for masses. Then commissions from millionaire capitalists in US. Eg Rockefella, JPMorgan, Ford, San Francisco stock exchange. Had spent a yr in communist USSR (established 1923). Hoped to spread communist ideals in US during Great Depression (caused by Wall Street Crash 1929), Rockefella work rejected when he refused to remove Lenin. Both Trotsky & Breton stayed with Riveras, collaborating on 1938 anti-Stalinist manifesto.

Spanish civil war, 1936. Then nazi bomber took out town of Guernica in ‘37, eg Picasso commemoration, dying horse of bullfighting paintings now universal tragic protagonist & surrealist minotaur, irrational forces of man/nature, wounded limbs/agonised heads based on impact of events, modern work could be understood by all.

Pablo Picasso – Guernica, 1937 (May 1st-June 4th, Paris)
Oil on canvas, 349,3 x 776,6 cm
© Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía

WWII, 1939, Surrealists fled to New York, carried on exhibiting & sewing ‘the seeds of postwar American movements, notably Abstract Expressionism’ P813 Dadaist John Heartfield/Helmut Herzfeld (1891-1968) used photomontage to express chaos of capitalist society & later, anti-Nazi exhibition,One Man’s War Against Hitler, London, 1939 eg A pan-German, 1933,p818. Works make stronger point than hand drawn because they are photographic, falsified reality, so photomontages taken up by Nazi propaganda/ads.

John Heartfield – A pan-German, 1933, Photomontage

Photographs of abject poverty of Depression turned into ‘object of enjoyment’, p817 US official farm security administration documented evicted sharecroppers to justify gov spending, photographer such as Walker Evans (1903-75), Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) & Roy E. Stryker (1893-1976), powerfully shocking with ‘clear, hideous & beautiful detail’ wrote poet Lincoln Kirstein in 1938 P817. Eg Lange’s Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936. Photographer Margaret Bourke-White (1904-71) & novelist Erskine Caldwell documented rural social reality of southern states for city dwellers in book You have seen their faces, 1937

Dorothea Lange – Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, Photograph
Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California, © Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540

Changes to status or training of artists

Rivera established reputation with gigantic Mexico city murals (1600m^2) in 1923-1928, then rich US patrons. No movement gave women prominence like Surrealism, Meret Oppenheim & Frida Kahlo (1907-54) ‘discovered’. Although roles defined in masculine Freudian terms, as projection of male needs/desires. Freda painted self-portraits (exploration of her body/cultural & sexual identity), rejected being labelled surrealist to retain independence of vision & identity. Her marriage to Rivera subordinated her as seen in The Two Fridas, 1939, painted during her divorce, p812.

Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas (Las dos Fridas), 1939, oil on canvas, 67-11/16 x 67-11/16 inches (Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City)

Photography still regarded as inferior art to even etching, pictures taken by millions of amateurs. During war years photographers joined pictorial avant-garde. Photographer/gallery director Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946) founded Photographic Secession, 1902 in NY, introducing artistic ideas from Europe expressed by photography. Exhibited many artists eg Picasso/Duchamp/Georgia O’Keeffe (who he married 1924). The Bauhaus influential teaching institution.

Development of materials and processes

Fountain 1917, replica 1964 Marcel Duchamp 1887-1968 Purchased with assistance from the Friends of the Tate Gallery 1999

Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) ready-mades, everyday commercial objects ‘selected’ as art. Eg Fountain, 1917. Automatism experiments (sticking down fallen torn paper) by Dadaists Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889-1943)/Jean(Hans) Arp(1887-1966) made beautiful papiers colles. Surrealists used automatism techniques to release the mind from ‘conscious control so that images from the subconscious could float to the surface’ p809. Max Ernst developed the visual equivalent, frottage (rubbings on surfaces). Rene Magritte (1898-1967) used banal technique of poster design to challenge assumptions about art in truly disruptive way p811.

Dada/Surrealists combined junk & scrap metal to make sculpture eg Picasso’s Head of a Bull, made from bits of bike. Iron introduced to studio caused 2nd sculptural revolution when Picasso moved from closed to open form works, welded around empty space when he collaborated with metalworker Julio Gonzalez (1876-1942). Picasso’s parts were still recognisable but Gonzalez completely reworked items into constant state of flux as viewer moves. Eg Woman combing her hair II, 1934. This extended further by Alexander Calder (1898-1976), who invented mobiles/stabiles & David Smith (1906-65) inventor of ‘space forms’ p814

Sheeler pioneered sharp-focus in photography. Technical developments of sharpness/instantaneous vision out of phase with other arts. 1917, Alvin Langdon Court (1882-1966) invented Vortographs (made by a kaleidoscope type device). Dadaist Man Ray invented photograms (unique camera-less photos) by placing objects on light sensitive paper & lighting it, ‘images of strange ambiguity, concrete & abstract at the same time’ p816. 12 published as Les Champs delicieuses (Delectable fields), 1922, see online here. Hannah Hoch (1889-1979) & Heartfield extended collages with photography into Photomontage.

Constantin Brancusi. Bird in Space. 1928. Bronze, 54 x 8 1/2 x 6 1/2″ (137.2 x 21.6 x 16.5 cm). Given anonymously. © 2017 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris

Architect Mart Sam (1899-1986) introduced cantilever principle 1924 & Marcel Breuer (1902-81), evolved 1st chromium plated chairs at the Bauhaus 1925 but der van Rohe chairs with poise & immaculate finish (hand crafted to look machine made) regarded as statement of revolutionary Bauhaus design. Unlike most sculptors, Brancusi made everything by hand but so that they look machine made, constant refining work eg 15 versions of Bird in space, 1923+. Conveys dreams of flight. Likewise, Henry Moore (1898-1986) tactile with wide variety of materials, which suggest both form & subjects eg two forms, 1934,vulnerability/protection/mother/child. Eventually over reliance on size for impact & Conservative sensibility lead to decline of post WW2 work.

Henry Moore – Two Forms, 1934 , Pynkado wood , 27.9 x 54.6 x 30.8 cm including oak base, Credit Sir Michael Sadler Fund

Styles and movements

Relaxed tension reflected in post war style of Braque/Matisse/Picasso, colour/texture/handling/subjects refined by ‘good taste’/bourgeois comfort p798 Picasso painted in multiple styles at once. Matisse ‘achieved art of balance, of purity & serenity devoid of troubling or depressing subject matter’ p802. ‘Nabis’ (prophets) Symbolist group of painters throughout 20s & 30s including Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Jean Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) & Paul Serusier (1864-1927), painted intimiste works, scenes of ‘provincial domesticity’ p802. Private/pleasure loving French ideal, extension of impressionist style with soft natural colours. Picasso thought them old-hat. Meanwhile, Dada launched from Swiss cabaret, 1916, ‘state of mind’ rather than movement. ‘anarchic, nihilistic & disruptive‘ they mocked traditional values/good taste/anything taken seriously/’art’. Dada nonsense word. Cult of non-art negated itself. Mostly writers/poets in Zurich. Anarchist Marcel Duchamp caused scandal with his futurist Cubism Nude Descending a staircase, 1912 but his Dadaist ready-mades represent total rejection of artistic canon. He & Francis Picabia (1879-1953) formed NY wartime group. Picabia’s simplified drawings of mechanical forms paralleled Duchamp’s insoluble enigma The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even/Large Glass, 1915-23. Only completed by being accidentally broken in transit in 1927.

Marcel Duchamp – The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass), 1915-1923, Oil, varnish, lead foil, lead wire, and dust on two glass panels, 277.5 × 177.8 × 8.6 cm, © 2012 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris / Succession Marcel Duchamp

It’s successor, Surrealism continued provocative gestures eg visitors to an exhibition were handed an axe to destroy the work. Lead by poet/theorist Breton with the aim of exploring Freud’s ideas of subconscious, mixing dreams & reality to create surreality, Freudianism, . He called Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978) ‘the supreme surrealist painter’. He denied authorship of his 1911-19 work of disturbing desolate Italian piazzas when praised, made inferior copies to confuse, going onto contrived academic styles which embarrassed the Surrealists. Very odd. 1925, 1st surrealist exhibition included them all except Dali/Magritte who joined later. Ernst recorded dreams (‘trompe l’oeil fixing’) in his collage novel series Les Femmes 100 tetes, 1929, 149 collage images p810. Salvador Dali (1904-89) made ‘hand-painted dream photographs’ eg The Persistence of Memory, 1931.

Salvador Dalí – The Persistence of Memory, 1931. Oil on canvas, 24.1 x 33 cm, © 2017 Salvador Dalí, Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Time stops in dreams/Freud’s unconscious, so watches are limp & decomposing. Aimed for constant state of confusion however cynical self-promotion lead to Breton kicking him out. Magritte used ambiguous titles, reality challenges in works without meaning eg Le viol. Joan Miro (1893-1983) went from style to style (Fauvism/Cubism/Dada/Surrealism), semi-abstract childlike innocence from psychic automatism, darker ‘biomorphic’ forms in later works. Open form sculpture Picasso/Gonzalez lead to Calder’s abstract kinetic sculpture eg lobster trap and fishtail, 1939 & Smith’s iron/steel ‘drawings in space’ p815.

Alexander Calder – Lobster Trap and Fish Tail, 1939 , Painted steel wire and sheet aluminum , 260 cm x 290 cm in diameter , Credit: Commissioned by the Advisory Committee for the stairwell of the Museum, © 2017 Calder Foundation, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Style of Edward Hopper (1883-1967) & Charles Sheeler (1883-1965) hard to place, perhaps Realist but refused classification/association with any Realist American groups including American Scene Painters/Regionalist painters eg Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975), Grant Wood (1891-1942) & John Steuart Curry (1897-1946) who embraced ‘jingoistic form of American artistic isolationism’ p804, they turned to conservative Midwestern agricultural values whilst Hopper depicted lonely urban New York during the Depression. Sheeler also city loving, photographer/painter/filmmaker, specialising in sharp focus, daring perspectives of architectural subjects turned into Precisionism style where strict geometry & technology combined mirroring modern America. Landscapes man made but unpopulated. Mexican Muralists, Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco & David Alfaro Siqueiros – leaders of Mexican art. Rivera’s style v political, combined mechanical shapes with faces/bodies of peasants. Later work less political more secular.

Stieglitz photography was traditional except clouds, Equivalents, 1927, similarly Edward Weston (1886-1958), sharply focused plants/fruit/abstract body parts. Dadaist photographic approach entirely different, Man Ray (Emanuel Rudnitsky, 1890-1976), ‘photographed the dust gathering on Duchamp’s Large Glass’ p816 & making photograms. US homeless photography (see above). French Street photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908-2004) caught vagaries of human behaviour as impartial observer. Eg Brussels, 1932 p818.

Henri Cartier-Bresson – Brussels, 1932, printed later, photograph, gelatin silver print, 24.29 cm x 36.35 cm, Credit: Collection SFMOMA, Gift of Mr and Mrs Frank Spadarella, © Henri Cartier-Bresson / Saif, Paris / VAGA, New York
Vladimir Tatlin – Monument to the Third International, 1919/20

Constructivism, short-lived progressive movement in Russia whose Marxist spirit was anti-aesthetic, utilitarian simplicity & respect for logic of materials P819, led by architects/sculptors/designers, El (Eleazer Markevich) Lissitzky (1890-41) & Vladimir Tatlin (1885-1953), who made completely abstract assemblages, turning architectural later. Unrealised design of Monument to the 3rd International, 1919/20 became symbol of revolutionary modernism p819. Most influential work in architecture/typography/publicity/exhibition design. Lissitzky’s Prouns (for the new art) paintings are architectural style, isometric projection/abstract. Photomontages by Alexander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (1891-1956) visually expressed Revolution,in ‘40s, his paintings evolved into abstract-expressionist style, anticipating Pollock. Constructivism officially suppressed in favour of revival of various architectural styles & Socialist Realism banality of Russian Official style. The Bauhaus in Germany provided a melting pot for arts/crafts & fine arts to unify. Distinguished artists such as Kandinsky, Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg & Paul Klee (1870-1940) joined/visited to lecture. Gropius aim was for artists & architects to work together. Craft products gave way to machine aesthetic/prototypes for mass production Eg Marcel Breuer’s tubular Steel chair. 1925, Bauhaus moved to new building whose unadorned pleasing, cubic, asymmetrical design of glazed walls supported by steel & concrete skeleton, feeling of openness/weightlessness and minimal white strips became International Style for 50yrs, Eg Schroder House, Utrecht, 1924 by De Stijl architect Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964). Befo

Paul Klee – Sunset, 1930, Oil on canvas, 46.1 x 70.5 cm, Signed, l.l.: “Klee”, Gift of Mary and Leigh Block, 1981.13, © 2017 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn

re WW2, Gropius & other teachers moved to US to teach, & others to Israel to build ‘White City’. Klee’s work was small scale & intellectual, based on elemental symbols/essentials of form. Eg Sunset, 209,1930. Piet Mondrian resigned from De Stijl 1924 over a principle. Wouldn’t allow diagonals! Totally abstract ambiguous works, primary/b&w colours, foreground plane with lines and rectangles to create ‘an art of pure relations’ with ‘life giving tension’ p823 eg Fox Trot A, 1929/30.

Piet Mondrian – Fox Trot A, 1930, Oil on canvas
78.2 x 78.3 cm, Gift of the artist for the Collection Société Anonyme, Photo credit: Yale University Art Gallery, © 2012 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International USA, Washington, DC

Similar straightforwardness marks work of 2 leading architects, Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeaneret (1887-1965)) & Ludwig Mies van de Rohe (1886-1969), ‘30s director of Bauhaus. Eg Villa Savoye, 1928/30 & single-family House project for Berlin, 1931 p825. Similar ambivalence in work of sculptor Brancusi at this time, approached ideal absolute form from mystic/spiritual/subjective pov. Paralleled with International style, Art Deco streamlined designs in 20s/30s, but exuberant vitality of popular cultural. Forward looking urban planning, of Le Corbusier, marginalised (skyscrapers in parkland, complex traffic systems etc). Notable in NY: Chrysler building/Rockefella centre 14 building/3 blocks coordinated as unit.

Inside and outside influences

WWI great influence on all artists. Cubism impacted Western Art as radically as Renaissance naturalistic style did. Rivera spent time with Picasso but was unaffected by Cubist aesthetic other than love of geometry. Heavily influenced by Italian Renaissance frescoes & Pre-Columbian sculptures. Spanish Civil War influence on works of artists such as Miro & Picasso eg Head of a Woman, 1938 & Guernica 1937. Moore rejected traditional sculpture for vitally/vigour from Mexican/Sumerian/non-European sculpture. Nabis group foreshadowed later developments. Hopper, similar spirit to urban scenes as German Expressionists, with their hysteria, mostly influenced by Manet/19thc French art and living thru Great Depression. Klee influenced by German Romantic philosophy, psychology (Freud/Jung), art of children, German expressionists. Matisse still great influence on many artists. Dadaists/Surrealists grudgingly admitted beauty of Matisse work but ‘deplored his influence & everything he stood for’p802 Duchamp’s influential Large Glass, became a talisman for artists for compelling active viewer participation p801. Dada a protest against the purely visual. Surrealism directly influenced by Freud, Breton also named Trotsky & obscure author Comte de Lautramont (Isadore Ducasse) from whose sadistic prose they got their motto ‘as beautiful as the chance meeting on a dissecting table of a sewing machine and an umbrella’ p809 and various other writers. Freud’s symbolism eg phallic noses/fetishist hair, in many works by Dali/Magritte et al, eg Luncheon in Fur, object, 1936 by Meret Oppenheim (1913-85). Calder influenced by Constructivist/Surrealist theory & Miro. Smith influenced by Picasso/Gonzalez. Picasso influenced Vladimir Tatlin. Photography continued to influence artists eg Giacomo Balla & Marcel Duchamp. Cartier-Bresson influenced by Surrealists, Symbolists, Freud & Marx. Gropius influenced by Lloyd Wright, Viennese Sezession group, Werkstatte, William Morris, English arts/crafts movement, Expressionism, De Stijl, Lissitzky & left-wing politics. Bauhaus influential teaching institution. Established architects Auguste Perret & Edwin Lutyens influenced by reductionist trends of Mondrian/Bauhaus

Critics, thinkers and historians

Lenin writes from his Swiss exile, 1917. Poet Tristan Tzara (1886-1963) lead Zurich Dada movement. Critic Clement Greenbergdebacle of age of experiment’ p803, questioned logical sequence of styles, early falloff of Cubist generation but constancy of Matisse (‘greatest master of 20thc’, p803) & late impressionists such as Bonnard in his 1948 article. Poet/artist/film-maker/playwright Jean Cocteau (1889-1963) promoted post-war call to order.Poet Andre Breton (1896-1966) wrote first (mostly literary) Surrealist Manifesto, Paris, 1924 (& book What is Surrealism, 1934). Surrealists issued a 1925 Declaration headed by Communist poet Louis Aragon (1897-1982), ‘we are determined to make a revolution’ p809. Dali detailed his creative Paranoiac-critical method in book La Femme Visible, 1930. Simone de Beauvoir, author of The Second Sex. Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1925.German writer Walter Benjamin praised Heartfield 1938, p817. He ‘applied a critically analytical intelligence to photography’ p815, A Small History of Photography 1931. Poet Lincoln Kirstein wrote about photography in 1938



Again found the reading wasn’t really chronological, several aspects going on concurrently so to fit the notes into the reading template I had to chop and change and rearrange. I suppose this was good because it highlighted that it was all going on simultaneously but it made the note taking less smooth than previous chapters. Its still in longish format that will have to be chopped down even futher to get to the page limit of the assignment but I needed at least this much to remember/understand the sailent points. I think students probably worry more about the word limit than really understanding what they’ve read!

Really enjoyed finding the pictures online to illustrate my notes. I think it would be me to do that for the older Assignment notes too. I’m a visual memory person, all the text floats in one eye and out the other but the images stick. Also found this interesting post on how Constantin Brancusi went to court to prove his Bird in space was art so he didnt have to pay taxes on it when it was designated a kitchen utensil!



Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing

Essential Reading WHA: Art from 1900-1919

Political, economic or social factors

Queen Victoria died 1901. Start of 20thC saw revolt against all forms of naturalism, pre-war era most daring. New methods and ideas in painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, music, philosophy & science. French colonial scandal in 1904 of black people ‘hunts’/murders brought Africa into focus & public outrage. German architects ideas of creative autonomy led to forms of anarchy, their ‘alliance with leftist political utopianism with artistic avant-garde most pronounced’  p778. Futurist ideas spread throughout Europe & US (better known than Cubism), not solely concerned with the arts. Marinetti wanted to obliterate culture of the past  & replace with need society based on new dynamic sensations/speed/noise/mechanical energy of the modern city. Movement cut short by WW1 with death of Boccioni & architect Antonio Sant’Elia (1888-1916) before futurist utopian designs built. It’s links with Fascism mean revival failed after the war Intellectual nature & ‘sense of social destiny’ of Abstract art linked with contemporary politics & social theory P793 Russian Revolution. World War I 1914-1918.

Changes to status or training of artists

Paris still artistic capital for Avant-garde Western art. Exhibitions here, and from 1910 in pre-war Czarist Russia, raised individuals & movement profiles. Chief patrons of Matisse/Picasso 1910+ were wealthy Moscow merchants whose collections were open to public meaning Russian artists aware of latest European trends. US architect Wright achieved international fame (but little influence) by 1910 publication of his work in Berlin.

Development of materials and processes

Pablo Picasso – Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
Paris, June-July 1907, Oil on canvas, 243.9 x 233.7 cm, Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest, © 2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Radical innovations underpin all further developments to date, eg Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon ,1907, nearly flat painting of a complex of invented forms, p771. Revolutionary break with Western illusionistic art.  He abandoned traditional single viewpoint & proportions & reordered human form into geometrical lozenges/triangles. New intellectual treatment of space/form/unexpressed emotions/states of mind. Rejected coherences of representational art.

Wassily Kandinsky – Composition VII, 1913, Oil on canvas, 200.0 × 300.0 cm, Moscow, Russia. The State Tretyakov Gallery

Also, Kandinsky created some of 1st completely abstract/non-objective works (simultaneously with others elsewhere in Europe). Landmark painting ‘Composition VII’ 1913. His earlier Improvisations had spiritual relationship with primitive art and artists. Plastics developed, 1909. Expressionists exploited woodblock/lino-cut to create graphic art with brutal powerful effect of distilling introspective emotions . P777. Matisse’s spontaneity misleading, colour & shape laboured over to the ‘right’ balance. Painting from subconscious, reactions to own reactions. In architecture, Poelzig’s Expressionist Grosse Schauspielhaus (1918/9) in Berlin was an innovation in theatre design, high stalactite covered ceiling with central circular stage. Picasso invented the collage (paste-up) by incorporating commercial print of chair pattern into 1912 still life. Went beyond play with natural & artistic reality by adding real items so they could be understood in either/both senses. Further refined by Braque , limiting the pasted elements to paper, Papiers colles, flat surfaces, eliminating illusionistic space. ‘we tried to get rid of trompe l’oeil to find a trompe l’esprit‘, Picasso, p787. Items pasted on meaningless, artist making meaning & beauty from nothing. Also, 1912,Picasso creates radical sculptural revolution by using all sorts of materials (wood, tin, card, paper, string etc) & assembling much like a collage. Liberating western sculpture from traditional material /techniques /subjects. Given new intellectual dimension although most sculptors stuck with traditional eg Aristide Maillol (1861-1944). Futurist Boccioni’s Technical Manifesto of futurist sculpture,1912, anticipates/parallels Picasso’s sculptural breakthrough. Using all sorts of materials ‘absolute & complete abolition of the finite line & closed-form sculpture’,p791

Styles and movements

Opposing tendencies, Subjectivism of Symbolists & objectivism/transcendent ‘otherness’ of Cezanne further explored bringing an end to artistic traditions from 14th C. First completely abstract work, 1912. Apparent dilemma between ‘cult of pure form & cult of inner truth’  p768. Period characterised by urge to break down convention & search for new ways of looking.

Impressionism culmination with Monet’s last series, Nympheas eg Water Lilies, 1907. His aim to present impressions of nature resulted in almost abstract view of his pool with its light, atmosphere and colour.

New way of seeing

Self-taught Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), naive artist, genius recognised by Picasso,  technical & conceptual naivety,innocent eye of a savage’ p769 enormous canvases of imagined, mysterious & menacing exotic jungle landscapes.

Henri Matisse, Bonheur de Vivre (Joy of Life), 1905-06, oil on canvas, 176.5 x 240.7 cm (The Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia)

 Les Fauves (Wild Beasts) group lead by Henri Matisse (1869-1954) held 1st ‘event’ in 20thC art 1905 in Salon d’Automne. Exhibition of ‘strident colours, rough handling & distorted anti-naturalistic drawing’ p774 Affinity with naive art. Others included Andre Derain (1880-1954) & Maurice Vlaminck (1876-1958). ‘deliberate disharmonies’ of flat arbitrary clashing colours express artists personal emotional reaction to subject. Colour freed from descriptive representation. Devoid of social comment. Matisse’s The joy of life, 1906, key. P775. His Harmony in Red, 1908 sums up Fauve style, light a function of flat colour, no perspective/modelling/space. Childlike simple pictorial means. Georges Rouault (1871-1958) broke with the group early, became ‘finest religious painter of 20thC’ p776. More of an expressionist painter of spiritual anguish.

German Expressionism developed to convey oppressive mood of prewar apprehension. Charged with spiritual significance, nationalism & anti-French bias. Lead by Ernst Kirchner (1880-1938) who wrote Brucke Manifesto. Spontaneity & sincerity. Style pioneered by Kathe Kollwitz (1867-1945) who remained independent of the group,considered herself a realist. Mystic evangelist Emil Nolde (1867-1956) painted his deeply religious feelings, ‘strength & inwardness’ p777. No general Expressionist architecture definition but roots in Gothic/Art Nouveau/anti-classical simplifying combination & expressive of function eg Erich Mendelsohn(1887-1953), Einstein‘s Observatory, 1919, & Hans Poelzig (1869-1936) (see above), AEG turbine factory, 1909,by Peter Behrens (1868-1940), & Max Berg (1870-1947), Centennial Hall at Wroclaw, 1911.

Der Blaue Reiter (the blue rider) group, Munich, 1911/16, abstract/non-objective works. Leading painter, Vassily Kandinsky (1886-1944), expressed through colour/form to strengthen emotional, spiritual & imaginative impact. Warm/spontaneous/organic. Revelation from seeing his upside down painting as ‘glowing with inner radiance’ p779. Franz Marc (1880-1916), killed in WW1, obsessed with animals. His most abstract, fighting forms, 1914, was left unfinished.

Franz Marc – fighting forms, 1914,

Georges Braque (1882-1963) & child prodigy Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) invented Cubism in close collaboration in 1908, tricky to define. Art simultaneously representational & anti-naturalistic. P783. The label of the Cubist movement was applied to a group of derivative artists in 1911, including Gleizes & Metzinger. Brought to US in 1913 exhibition. It raise Q of  ‘figuration as against abstraction as a conscious and serious issue’  p782 . Never intended to be non-representational, Picasso: ‘no such thing as abstract art. You must always start with something’. P782

Georges Braque, The Portuguese, 1911, oil on canvas, 116.8 x 81 cm (Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel, Switzerland)

Picasso ditched perspective /single viewpoint to combine several views in a single image. Surface of figures broken into facets lit from different arbitrary directions, space eliminated. Picture conceived as independent construction, picture-object/’tableau-objet’ p784. Layer more controlled, narrow range of close-value earthy colours. Less spatial, more volumetric & sculptural than Braque whose semi abstract natural forms of tilting overlapping planes in shallow space protrudes to the viewer. Their work 1910-12 known as Analytical Cubism less sculptural, ‘painterly dissolution of their 1908/9 manner’ p784. The term (by Juan Gris (1887-1927)) is a misnomer as there was no rational process of dissection. Forms more fragmented, they didn’t use observational references, leading towards intellectual abstraction just short of unrecognizability, near monochrome colours grey/green/ochres, dry matt surface. Unimportant ‘ostensible subjects hover like after-images behind geometrical structures‘. P785

Synthetic Cubism, mirror image of Analytical Cubism working back from abstraction to representation, developed alongside collage, object depicted with forms not derived from it, decorative and disunity. Eg Picasso’s harlequin, 1915. P788.

Pablo Picasso – Harlequin, Paris, late 1915, Oil on canvas ,183.5 x 105.1 cm, Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest , © 2017 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Orphic Cubism group: Robert Delaunay (1885-1941), Sonia Delaunay-Terk (1885-1979), Fernand Leger (1881-1955), Marcel Duchamp (1884-1968), & Francis Picabia (1879-1953), interested in prismatic colour (when Picasso/Braque not) with contrasts and Cubist planar structure. Inspired by light itself, the sun, the source of life. Vibrant, dynamic. Leger’s style slightly different, genuine alternative to cubism. Contrasts of both line and form, instead of light, his subject was dynamic, discordant, urban, modern life. He became the artist of the machine age after the war.

Umberto Boccioni
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
1913 (cast 1931), Bronze, 111.2 x 88.5 x 40 cm, Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest

Futurism, short lived, high impact movement. Ideas by Marinetti & artist Boccioni (see thinkers below), aim to represent ‘psychical & total experience’ p790. Cubist broken forms, emphasising intuition/action & ‘simultaneity’ rejecting static compositions, pictures small sections of continuous wholes P790. Subjects moving through, or gone. Some abstract eg Giacomo Balla (1871-1958) created some of earliest non-objective paintings with his Iridescent Interpretations series 1912. Boccioni’s work more naturalistic eg. The city rises, 1910. The aims of the movement fully realised in his sculpture, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913. The construction of the action of the body ‘pure plastic rhythm’. P791. Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876-1918), The Horse 1914 bronze cast of a mechanized/abstract but recognisable form.

Abstract/non-objective art implicated by Cubism (resisted by Picasso/Braque). ‘absolutely self-sufficient entity of value entirely in and for itself’ p793 Ideologically different from Kandinsky. Incorporated maths & ideal harmony between humans/environment.

Russian abstract movement lead by Mikhail Larionov (1881-1964) & Natalia Goncharova (1881-1962) in 1912/13 called Rayonism by Larionov because their works resembled rays of lights p794

Constructivist movement formed by Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935) during/after Revolution.  Notable painter Liubov Serbeevna Popova (1889-1924). Although deeply Christian, Malevich interested as Kandinsky in theosophical speculation. His style ‘Cubo-Futuristic’ developed into totally abstract ‘Suprematism’, elemental visual forms, which convey the supremacy of idea over matter, over the chaos of nature’ p794 which ended in 1922. Progression of mathematical shapes & simple colours.

The 1917 Dutch De Stijl (the style) abstract group, led by painters Piet Mondrian (1872-1944), Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931) & architect Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (1890-1963) wanted to develop ‘abstraction towards its ultimate goal’ p795. Used Cubist ochre/grey colours but more spiritual form of art with close textured, dynamic compositions, high minded ideals of absolute purity, harmony & sobriety. Impossible to detect subject but based on nature.

American architecture grew in prominence with Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959). Extended Sullivans ‘form follows function’, applied to affinities of man & nature with ‘organic architecture’ suggestive of Cubism. Buildings in harmony with their environment eg ground-hugging prairie houses with free forms interiors & bespoke furnishings, ‘Robie House, Chicago, 1907-9’ p796.

In Germany, Adolf Meyer (1881-1929) and Walter Gropius (1883-1969) pre-empted the post-war International Style of architecture with their Fagus Shoe Factory, 1911-1914, ‘glass curtain-walling, flat roof without cornice, an unrelieved cubic block’ p797.

Inside and outside influences

Freud’s theories had a profound effect on artists & intellectual thought. Transformed attitudes & values. Engendered Primitivism, ‘myth of the primitive ‘ (ref Gauguin, section 4), influence of primitive arts of naive, folk art & children, especially African & Oceanic area art (seen in anthropological & ethnographical museums & fetishes in junk shops) on many Fauve/Expressionists/Cubists. Picasso found African art a creative revelation & liberating energy p771 He was influenced by Matisse & Iberian sculpture, el greco, symbolism & rejection of refinement (of his contemporary Monet). Said ‘around 1906 Cezanne’s influence flooded everything ‘ p771 (with his large figure compositions, a final attempt at classical tradition).

Art Nouveau & classical pastoral tradition influenced Matisse’s The joy of life & early Kandinsky/Gabriele Munter (1877-1962).

Rouault inspired by religion & van Gogh.

German Expressionists influenced by Nietzsche & Munch.

Abstract art originates in theories of Romantics, music & colour. Anti-materialist Kandinsky influenced by occult & theosophical ‘thought forms’ & Steiner lectures. Franz Marc inspired by Futurist & Orphic art.

Cubism influenced abstract movements such as Orphism, De Stijl, Constructivism etc.

Futurism influenced by fast paced modern life/technology, Cubists, Expressionists & multiple exposure photographic studies of movement.

Joseph Stella, American, born Italy, 1877–1946
Battle of Lights, Coney Island, Mardi Gras
1913–14, Oil on canvas
195.6 x 215.3 cm,
Gift of Collection Société Anonyme, Photo credit: Yale University Art Gallery

Futurism influenced all subsequent contemporary artistic movements (including synthetic Cubism & Duchamp brothers). It’s exuberant optimism inspired Battle of Lights, Coney Island, 1913 by Joseph Stella example in US. P791. Also, Romanian sculptor Constantin Bruncusi (1876-1957) who’s main influences of native folk art/‘primitive’ African art were completely at odds eg The prodigal son, 1915 (hand-made/organic quality hated by Futurists) & Bird in Space, 1928 (eloquently embodies futurism).

Rayonists inspired Constructivists.

De Stijl influenced by Calvinist background.

Malevich’s lofty ideas influenced Vladimir Tain, El Lissitzky & Alexander Rodchenko in post-Russia Revolutionary period.

Critics, thinkers and historians

Philosopher Henry Bergson (1859-1941), Creative Evolution, 1907, also, Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) parallels between artistic innovations & philosophy.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) ‘interpretation of dreams ‘, 1900, involved theories of the subconscious, including sexual urge & understanding instinctual side of human nature with emphasis on emotion and sensations being more important than rational thought.

Writer Andre Gidethe time for gentleness and dilettantism is past.  What are needed now are barbarians’ p769.

Poet Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) wrote about Rousseau.

Art historian Elie Faure described Fauves as young ‘primitives’ in exhibition catalogue. p774

Matisse’s Notes of a Painter, 1908, widely read, immediately translated into Russian & German.

Polemical French Catholic writers, Leon Bloy, Charles Peguy & Jacques Maritain friends & admirers of Rouault

Influential Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) inspired generation of writers/artists with oppressive pre-war foreboding eg novelist Franz Kafka (1883-1945).

The term ‘Expressionist’ coined in 1911, with regard to Matisse & Van Gogh at 1st, by writer Wilhelm Worringer (1881-1965) who published ‘Form in Gothic’ & ‘Abstraction and Empathy’ (1908, abstract art & need to withdraw from material world).

Critic Roger Fry wrote about Kandinsky in 1913, ‘Pure visual music‘ p778. French philosopher Bergson, ‘importance of the intuitive in the apprehension of truth’ p779 . Pioneer Gestalt psychologists asserted that shape/size/colour /spatial orientation etc produce certain perception, meanings inherent in forms/colours despite context. Kandinsky’s book ‘concerning the spiritual in art’. Abstract art as ‘inner-necessity’ not meaningless decoration. Occult/ theosophical theorist Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) taught that artistic experiences & art were best stimulants for understanding spiritual matters.

Artists Albert Gleizes (1881-1953) & Jean Metzinger (1883-1956) wrote book, Du Cubisme . Georges Braque, Aphorisms on art published 1917, emphasised the autonomy of cubism. Picasso’s only recorded discussion on Cubism 1923 with critic Marius de Zayas, he was sceptical of intellectualising it, should be judged on results not intentions.

Critic/poet/writer/close friend of Picasso, Apollinaire spoke of Orphic Cubism as ‘pure painting’ in 1912 p789.

Italian poet Emilio Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944) launched Futurism ideology, Milan 1908, manifesto published Paris 1909. Taken up by Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916), further manifestos, on painting, 1910, ‘universal dynamism must be rendered as dynamic sensations; movement & light destroy the substance of objects’ p769, and sculpture, 1912.

Austrian architect Adolf Loos (1870-1933), ‘Ornament and Crime’, 1908 gospel of modern movement in architecture.


The course notes bid us reflect upon the proliferation of -isms, and the usefulness or otherwise of categorising art history into a series of styles of movements. In this first of the three chapters there was not as many -isms as I was expecting. Yes I think these -isms are more than a useful shorthand to facilitate art historical discussion, for example, Cubism was seen at the time as a school, the artists involved were in a circle of likeminded artists pushing the boundaries of art. They exhibited in the Saloons together, they got criticised as a group. Many movements (not all) were like this, a ‘scene’ at the time, and of course also useful for us looking back.

The main thrust of this chapter is the radical changes in such a few short years. Newness across the spectrum of art, literature, music, philosophy & science. In art, each ism moved it that little bit closer to the complete break with traditions of Cubisms new pictoral language and revolution in sculpture of open form. And the post war optmism of Futurism.

Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing

Essential Reading: WHA ‘From Impressionism to Post-Impressionism’

Political, economic or social factors

Franco-Prussian war ended in humiliating surrender 1870. Next yr, 1st German emperor crowned at Versailles, the Paris Commune was viciously suppressed (Courbet imprisoned for his part). Many artists avoided trouble at this time by going abroad, eg Manet & Sisley went to London. Second Empire monument Paris Opera House opens in period of Third Republic, a celebration of ‘bourgeois stability’ but sculpture criticised for indecency ( designed by Charles Garnier (1825-98) with virtuoso sculpture on its façade by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (1827-75)). Paris a city for men, women and children preferred society in the suburbs, (as painted by Morisot). Public have difficulty comprehending the work of the Impressionists. Neo-impressionists were active supporters of Socialist-Anarchist movement in France eg Signac, bore witness to ‘ great social struggle… taking place between workers & capital ‘ p717,. Socialism played positive role in highlighting social protest, eg Angelo Morbeli (1853-1919) For eighty cents,1895. American Civil War ends 1865. Japanese woodblock became widely accessible after 1854 when Japan reopened to foreigners by USA, closed since 1638 expect for Dutch. Devastating fire in 1871 caused an architecturally innovative building boom in Chicago Changes in bourgeois social living stemming from new domestic architecture as middle-class architects designed medium sized detached houses.

Changes to status or training of artists

A regular feature of 19thC were attacks of outrage on artists by the public. Salon des Refuses opened 1863 to accept works rejected by the Salon including those of Impressionists providing an alternative avenue for success. Impressionists eventually recognised by cultivated intelligentsia if not the official art world. Successful artists had good standard of living, eg Monet had 6 gardeners! More artists working without commissions due to independent economic means, amateurs taking up art as a passion, art as a way of life became common changing the status of artists. Scottish Art Nouveau architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) more appreciated in Vienna than Glasgow due to the style spreading via lavishly illustrated magazines which had international circulations. International exhibitions which were a feature of 1890s which would make artists well known v quickly.

Development of materials and processes

Degas gave up oils for pastel, mixed media & watercolour by 1870s. He learned devices of illusion from Japanese prints, a way of seeing form. Also keen photographer. With the exception of Degas, the Impressionists completed their finished works in open air, not just sketches. Impressionists used high toned palette of clear bright colours, applied with varied, broken brushwork onto a canvas primed with white (not traditional brown), using colours alone to create form, spectrum colour s blend optically with distance. In contrast with spontaneous freshness of Impressionist brushwork Georges Seurat developed a new laborious, painstaking methodical technique done in the studio he called chromoluminarism (pointillism/divisionism), short, non-directional, brushstrokes uniformly separated painted evenly across the canvas hoping for greater luminosity. In later works these brushstrokes became juxtaposed dots of pure colour ‘divided’, colours blended optically at the correct distance instead of mixed on the palette. Angelo Morbeli created specially devised 3 pointed brush to make intricately woven strokes run in parallel threes. Revolutionary use of real materials in sculpture such as hair, muslin or satin p711. Lithography developed into ‘polychrome medium converted posters ’ allowed new form of public art eg Lautrec. New reproduction process following invention of photography allowed art magazines to be lavishly illustrated (as mentioned above). Use of Metal as building parts continues, creating cast iron districts by 1840s, especially in NY where James Bogardus (1800-74) introduced cast iron facades, playing a role in prefabrication, one of the most important innovations of the Industrial Revolution, parts could be mass produced & assembled onsite saving on time & skilled labour. Prefab houses of iron were being shipped from England all over the world.Crystal Palace by greenhouse designer Joseph Paxton (1803-65) exploited this to be of its own time. Intended to be a temporary space for an exhibition of international wonders of the industrial age. A radical departure from previous design  & construction models but seldom admired by contemporary architects, they felt compelled to ‘clothe’ their buildings in past style ornament while taking advantage of new materials eg John Roebling’s Brooklyn Bridge, technological marvel having Gothic arches. Similarly Statue of Liberty was also using internal metal framing to support the copper drapery of the antique Roman vision. Buildings had maxed out at 12 stories until metal framing introduced in 1883 Chicago by William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907), skeleton construction which free from load bearing walls followed in 1889, from this Louis Henry Sullivan (1856-1924) achieved complete independence from old styles & gave skyscrapers their classic form with his Guaranty (Prudential) Building (1894-95) in Buffalo, New York.

Styles and movements

Impressionism : Claude Monet (1840-1926) tried to answer Baudelaire’s demand for an art for ‘modern life’ with The picnic, 1865-6 . Striving for optical truth on a contemporary subject. Impressionism born when Monet and Renoir (1841-1919) spent the summer together in 1869, their paintings showed innocent and joy in the visible world . p702 They thought of it as the final stage of Realism. It reflects the positivist scientific attitudes of the mid 19thC, Colour and optical theories by Chevreul. Positivism influenced the Realists already in their rejection of past and future as subjects. They should invent nothing, their concern was with truth and contemporary experience. Impressionists sought totally objective transcription of the everyday world around them, emotionally uninvolved, often social observation giving voice to those not previously heard or painted . Baudelaire had said ‘modernity is the transitory, the fleeting, the contingent ’. p703 Landscape or outdoor subject, usually small in scale, painted on the spot. Relied on colours blending optically when viewed at the right distance, not much tonal contrast. They combined all these elements that prior artists had used separately. painted outside so the truth of the first immediate impression of the scene would not be lost. p703 ‘Impression – sunrise’, Monet’s 1872 painting coined the term Impressionist. Paintings appear flat, as per scientific theory at the time that we do both see the third dimension. Illusionistic innovations, experiments with spectrum palette, idyllic scenes, diaphanous brushwork, shimmering water & blazing summer light. Manet, Monet and Renoir often painted together. Albert Sisley (1839-99) simplest & purest, Female painter Berthe Morisot (1841-95) concentrated on subjects of social spaces of women & children with greater attention to solidity of form. Renoir developed doubts about lack of form, composition & content. With his traditional concern with human figure & ‘rainbow palette ‘, he wrung Impressionism dry. Edouard Manet (1832-83) was associated but never exhibited with impressionists, seemingly concentrated on exploitation of women eg Olympia. Urban Nightlife & vitality of cafés, bars & cabaret. Loneliness & disillusion of city life, isolation & alienation typical of modern sensibility. p710. Eg Manet’s A bar at the Folies-Bergere 1881-2 . And Degas (1834-1917) who created finished works in the studio with only studies done on location, scenes of modern life, cafes, ballet dancers, nudes etc. Preferred ‘artificial life’ to ‘natural life’ of the rest of the Impressionists. His images of women don’t ‘presuppose an audience ‘ they are ‘honest simple folk ‘. Keyhole aesthetic. He was also a sculptor, highly regarded by Renoir although his sculpture mostly only cast after his death.

Japonisme: Influence of Japanese art signalled a break from Classical tradition, allowing new ways to see & represent the illusion of 3D space on a 2D surface. Influence on Degas not immediately obvious, but it showed him what drawing really meant. First of the indigenous arts that helped to develop modern western art, followed by African, Polynesian and indigenous American. Whistler‘s Nocturne: Blue and Silver, Cremorne Lights, 1872 translates Japanese art into Western terms, as does Monet’s Impression – Sunrise. Mary Cassatt ‘s colour prints of women & children use the high vantage point & asymmetry of the Japanese style, similarly with Gauguin ‘s The Vision after the Sermon,1888. Toulouse Lautrec incorporated the style translated into posters, flattening illusionistic space & uniting pattern of pictorial elements with lettering. Also evident in Van Gogh‘s later work.

Neo-Impressionist : mid 1880s revolt on trivial content & formlessness lead to extended style with more meaning, personal impressions of the artist. Seurat created pointillism to impose logic & discipline on Impressionist discoveries. Eg bathers . His hard edged outlines & firm structural effect of line based composition also contrasts with Impressionists atmospheric imprecision. His subject matter was more working class, less bourgeois. One of his followers, Paul Signac (1863-1935) became the diversionists /neo-impressionists spokesman. Politically provocative work by Signac, Pissarro , Henri-Edmond Cross & others now seems lyrical & carefree. Italian divisonisti developed independently. Symbolism: was main subjective current of anti-Impressionism in last two decades of century. Turned away from objective naturism to imagination and fantasy. Expressive line & form. Aim ‘to clothe the Idea in sensual, perceptible form’ p717 Explicit rejection of Impressionism & neo-impressionism following Emile Bernard (1868-1941) ‘to allow ideas to dominate the technique of painting‘ p718. Went to Brittany for backwards village life, Pont-Aven school. Developed simplified style of bold outline and flat colour, ‘Cloisonnism’, a catalyst for Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) . He gave up profitable career as stock broker in 1883 to paint. Dream, memories, imaginings & allegories predominant in his paintings as with other Symbolists such as Van Gogh, Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Auguste Rodin (1840-1917). Gauguin’s style based on ‘innocence and knowledge, the savage and uncivilised ’ p719. Sought purity, simplicity & myth of the primitive which he immersed himself in,first in Brittany then when he moved to Tahiti & married a local girl, eg Spirit of the dead watching,1892. Art as a new religion for both Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh (1853-90). Van Gogh’s was a calling . He painted over 800 pictures, plus drawings, in a ten year period, experiencing insanity, mental breakdown and finally suicide, each painting a cry of anguish, eg the night cafe, 1888 . With disharmonies of green, red & yellow expressing ‘ the terrible passions of humanity ’.p718 He’d studied to become a pastor in Belgium, becoming an artist instead to satisfy spiritual craving. Another moody, broody individual was Munch, his unbalanced work having a cumulative effect. Theme of suffering through love, fin-de-siecle disillusion eg Frieze of Life, culminating in the scream, 1893. Sculptor Rodin’s 20yr long, unfinished The Gates of Hell, also shows psychic distress of fin-de-siecle period. He objected to being called a Symbolist, working from nature like impressionist painters his sculptures were naturalistic feats, that also portrayed states of mind. Last great sculptor of old tradition, not innovative as Degas.

Historicism provoked demand for a style of the 19th Century, Art Nouveau was the 1st attempt to break from the past. A new positive, expressive modern style of sculpture & architecture, taking its name from a gallery in Paris designed by Belgian Henry van de Velde (1863-1957). Munch’s The Scream exact contemporary of the Tassel house in Brussels by Victor Horta (1861-1947) featuring similar slithery, curvilinear patterns & decorative swirls characteristic with Art Nouveau, though there is no emotional turmoil in the new style, the patterns are purely decorative, flat and relaxed. Antoni Gaudi Spanish architect & Art Nouveau designer created buildings with whacky asymmetrical, jagged planes, extravagant forms, often having no straight walls or right angles, everything undulating with organic interplay of exterior and interior. American architect Sullivan created first skyscraper, ‘form follows function‘. p728. Bourgeois domestic architecture another 19thC phenomenon, ‘picturesque‘ tradition for small houses in England started by John Nash (1752-1835).  Philip Webb’s The Red House for artist William Morris. Later, Charles Francis Annesley Voysey’s informal rustic trend. Eg Norney, Surrey. Individual plan to suit clients,cozy rooms, friendly & wholesome dream of lost rural bliss. In US Henry Hobson Richardson’s open plan, neo-romanesque, Shingle style houses.

Greatest of all late 19thC artists Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) believed in reflection upon rather than simply observe. New depth of understanding of Impressionism, art, nature, perception and reality, his paintings had deep level of personal spirituality. He was able to see depth and pattern simultaneously, & sought to answer problems of representing desired depth on a flat canvas. Financially independent & solitary, he enjoyed the flexibility of setting up a still life to ‘realize’ over time, sometimes creating wax standing. Purposefully created perceived distortions & incorrect perspectives. His use of colour, solid construction and simple shapes gave enhanced effects of mass, volume & rhythm. eg Fruit Bowl, Glass & Apples 1879-92. Evenly worked with thick, regular, slanted brush strokes & lush colour creates a consistency across the canvas. Wide range of subjects, still life,portraiture, landscape, painted with restricted palette of greens, blues & earth colours. Eg Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from Les Lauren (1902-04).

Inside and outside influences

Colour theory & Positivism influenced Impressionists. Influence of Japanese prints & Impressionist style unshackled artists from the Classical tradition & ‘authority of the old masters’. Japanese prints more influential than photography on Impressionists (& Symbolists eg Gauguin). Every major painter (except Cézanne) affected. Socialist politics influence Neo-Impressionist & Italian Divisonisti art. Symbolists inspired by Baudelaire’s cult of private world of the self & theory of correspondences. Turned romantics & Delacroix ideas of expressive colours to line & form. Bernard & Pierre Puvis de Chavannes influenced Gauguin. He also drew inspiration from reproductions of Egyptian reliefs, Parthenon frieze, Rembrandt, Borobudur reliefs etc as well as his exotic South Sea culture & surroundings. Gauguin influential, Munch impacted by him impressionism, Seurat & van Gogh. Art Nouveau influenced by Symbolist, Rococo & Celtic ornament, pre-Raphaelites, William Morris & Arts & Craft movement but essentially new style. Post-Industrial Revolution nostalgia inspired 19thC domestic architecture & art.

Critics, thinkers and historians

Scientific theories of 19thC were important to the Impressionists new modern way of seeing. Michel Eugene Chevreul (1786-1889) wrote of colour theories. Also pursued study of optics & physiological principles with Hermann, L. F. von Helmholtz (1821-94) et al. Positivism was a philosophical system created by Auguste Comte (1798-1857), non-scientifically variable explanations are inadmissible. our senses and perception are the only acceptable basis of knowledge. p703. French Poet Jules Laforge (1860-87) wrote of Impressionists he knew. Like Manet & Degas, Naturalist writers Zola & Maupassant also took urban night life as inspiration. Writer Edmond de Goncourt compared Greek art to ‘boredom in perfection ‘ when looking at Japanese prints p710. Théodore Duret wrote 1st serious discussion of Impressionism 1878. Academician Jean-Leon Gerome stopped French President entering room of Impressionist work. Symbolist Movement heralded for poets by Jean Moreas with Socialist Manifesto 1886, who rejected Zola. Poet Gustave Kahn, gave further explicit declaration. Tolstoy, war and peace, 1864. Bell invents telephone, Edison invents phonograph & telegraph. Wilde, the importance of being earnest

Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing

Essential Reading: WHA ‘Romanticism to Realism’

Now read WHA Chapter Fifteen, ‘Romanticism to Realism’. Pay particular
attention to the ways in which artists responded to the challenges of
industrialisation and the exposure to non-western cultures brought about
by colonialism.

Political, economic or social factors

In early 19thC revolutionary changes in philosophy and science made the universe seem more mysterious rather than less, the Age of Reason was over. Europe saw the ‘despotism of liberty’ of Napoleons imperial rule. p637 His armies were sent to revolutionise Europe & his ideas spread to south america, west asia and india, this began period of political & social unrest. Power in France transferred from old aristocracy to bourgeoisie (via the directory (1794-9), Napoleon as 1st consul from 1799 & Emperor from 1804, restored Bourbon monarchy (1815-30), constitutional monarchy of Louis-Philippe (1830-48), 2nd republic (1848-51), 2nd empire of napoleon III (1851-70) and then 3rd republic). Press censorship caused artists such as Honore Daumier to satirized in lithographs. Elsewhere in Europe the middle classes also created revolutions to be involved in government. ‘Everywhere there was conflict between forces of continuity (monarchy, landed aristocracy, & church) and forces of change’. p637

Rapid rise in population, spread of industrialisation, enrichment of entrepreneurs, drift from country to city & emergence of an urban proletariat mean the growth of new social structures not regulated by old systems of government which were based on notion of static order and immutable values. p637

The Industrialisation revolution began in England in 1780s because no guild restrictions or customs barriers as per Europe. Exploited still growing colonial empire and overseas trade but cost of lower social level human suffering v great. In Manchester 1826, overproduction led to trade recession & thousands of unemployed. successful factory owners had country houses to retreat to while workforce had cheap redbrick back-to-back hosing which turned into slums. From 1830s, factory owners made company towns for workers and cared about their welfare (Owen & Fourier’s theories). Air polluted by in industrialisation meant introduction of public parks, lungs of the city. e.g. Regents park designed by architect John Nash (1752-1835) surrounded by middle class houses. Country estate views now available to those classes. Inspired by the parks in Liverpool, American journalist Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) took back the public park idea to the US and collaborated with Calvert Vaux (1824-95) on NY’s Central Park in 1863.

p656  The Atlantic slave trade started as soon as Europeans began to colonise the Americas, was still on the increase in mid-18thC when Christians/Quakers & free thinkers driven by a new moral imperative & ideas of freedom as a right began to campaign for it to stop. Abolished in Denmark in 1792, & in France in 1794, Britain, USA and finally Brazil in 1831, all of which prompted much discussion of the emancipation of women. Only the trading was abolished though, actually owning slaves was legal in the British Empire until 1834, French empire until 1848, USA 1865, Spanish colonies 1873 and Brazil until 1888. Only then because of a combination of humanitarian demands & economic & political pressure. Freedom was a sensitive issue, especially since the French revolution(s) so artists (such as Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802-58) & Auguste-Francois Biard (1798-1882)) concentrated on the slave trade aspect. The Medusa has political overtones re slavery about it. Biard & Turner both showed their work in the 1840 RA summer exhibition (a month ahead of the inter nation antislavery convention). However the British self-righteous indignation was a barrier to the commercial exploitation of Africa. Most images of black people of the time aroused pity rather than admiration, Nathaniel Jocelyn’s proud portrait of a black hero, Cinque, (who lead an uprising on a slave ship) was refused to be shown at the AFS of Philadelphia because it was too controversial.

History now dominated 19th C thought, photography played into this with more accurate records of events, earlier works of art & architecture. Marx & Hegel based their philosophies on historical precedent. p662/5 Art for Art’s Sake was attacked as much as commended, p668.

America had booming industrial economy, Yosemite/Yellowstone National Parks were created to protect the wilderness in 1864 despite Civil War. The most active promoters for the parks included Frederick Law Olmsted. The civil war also provoked the most anxious heart searchings on the problem of national identity, reflected by the arts of course e.g. Winslow Homer (1836-1910). In the South, 1876, African Americans effected by no further effort to implement Fifteenth Amendment (p680) and segregation ever more enforced. The Native Americans were seen as the enemy of civilisation. Their alliance with the British during the Revolution and Caleb Bingham’s rather hostile images of them didn’t help. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, Sept 1862, presented a Unionist View of the state of the nation. p679

Much discussion on the nature of Photography and whether it could be considered art culminated in a lawsuit in Paris, 1861-2, where the judge ruled that ‘photographs could be […] products of thought and spirit, of taste and intelligence, bearing the imprint of a personally and thus a work of art’, p682  They were still excluded from the Saloons from 1850 though. They were barred from the RA in London into the 20thC (apart from one accidental, hand-coloured, acceptance in 1861)! Artists such as Ingres petitioned against the ruling but Delacroix refused to add to the petition. The poet Alphonse de Lamartine thought that photography was a collaboration between artists and the sun. Fox Talbot remarked that photographs reveal details that the eye does not normally notice, and the split second timing catches moments not registered by the human eye. Like the illusion of a horses ‘flying gallop’ and the spokes of a rotating wheel not being blurred. Rodin remarked that ‘the artist is truthful and photography lies‘. p685

Changes to status or training of artists

Artistic thought changed last decade of 18thC and 1st of 19thC, out of the radical changes brought by revolution came notions about artistic freedom, identity, sincerity, uniqueness. About the power of artists to transcend logical thought processes and tap into unconscious states of mind . p636 they were and worked mainly for the middle classes. When the Louvre opened to the public, artists were able to freely study the works of the old masters which were previously unavailable to view.

Demand from the middle class/bourgeoisie public was for an escapist art, evocations of distant times, distant lands, happy country folk and beauties of nature p640 e.g. Constable. Art dealers sold individual prints from calotypes where choice of subject proved important for paintings to secure wide & profitable diffusion of prints. Exhibiting in London, Paris and Berlin enabled artists such as Albert Bierstadt to achieve international reputations.

Women artists started to achieve prominence despite continued restrictions, still prevented from studying at art schools & life models. Although a few were pupils of JL David e.g. Mme Benoist (1768-1826), her work of a black woman was shown in the 1800 Salon. her career cut short though when her husband became a kings minister and it wasn’t ‘proper’ to have a painter as a wife.

Artists such as Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835), another pupil of JL David, reflected aspirations of empire as well as David had of the republic. e.g. Napolean in the Plague House at Jaffa, 1804.

Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) was a painter of a new type, middle class with a private income enough to support him working without commissions, this allowed him artistic freedom to choose his own subjects. Also, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot had similar financial freedom.

Turner was elected associate of the RA in 1799 and full member in 1802, Constable had to wait for associateship until 1819 and wasn’t a full member until 1829. p655

French ‘historical landscape’ painters such as Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875) had academic backing, based on precedents of Claude and Poussin. Drawing in the open countryside became the equivalent of life class where they could make etudes. Constable & turner also worked in this way.

Many of the famous American artists of the time were actually trained in Europe e.g. Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) p681

As photography equipment and technique became more readily available and increasing number of amateurs took up photography, often more successful at penetrating characters than the professionals e.g. Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-79). The camera cannot lie, but it needn’t tell the whole truth either.  Roger Fenton (1819-69) was sent by the British gov to the Crimean war to take photos to disprove blundering military leadership. During American civil war (1861-05) photographers (e.g. Mathew Brady (1823-96) and Timothy H O’Sullivan (1840–82)) were in the front lines to record the conflict. They recorded the victims & disasters of war, rather than earlier paintings which had celebrated the heroism and victory.

Development of materials and processes

Multi-storey factories were built of iron to reduce the risk of fire, this impressed Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel.

New importance given to the sketch by romantic artists and fee handling of materials which reveal in most direct manner artists individual touch.

Development of lithography in 1798. p649 preserves artists touch and doesn’t require an engraver, promoted caricaturists in newspapers.

Artists such as Blake coloured of prints by hand using watercolours.

Turner, John Constable (1776-1837) and Friedrich all began with topographically accurate views in watercolour (seen as a medium of antiquity, much used in the Orient, it was extensively taken up in latter 1/2 of 18th C mostly in England for small scale landscapes). p655 They started with etudes, precise studies of bits of the countryside (observed from life) which could be used in later studio compositions. Turner was famous for large scale watercolour ‘Romantic Landscapes’ (18thC meaning of the word). His early work influenced by John Robert Cozens (1752-97). Oils of the same period relied on heavy scumbling and much use of palette knife, these departed much more radically from accepted academic manners, shocking conservative critics. p658 Constable prepared works with drawings and full size painted sketches, worked with bravura of handling of fully loaded brush or palette knife. Famous for an almost Wordworthian ‘joy of elevated thoughts’. Friedrich’s work had hints of transcendental overtones e.g. the wanderer above the mists, 1817-18

Professor of painting at RA, Swiss painter John Henry Fuseli (1741-1825) promoted art which concealed its means, ‘the less the traces appear of the mean by which a work has been produced, the more it resembles the operations of nature’. p658 Turner clashed with this sentiment whilst at the academy, with violent colour and handling of paint that shocked the critics. The Slave ship‘s original title when exhibited in 1840 was Slavers throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying – Typhon coming on. Perhaps a reflection of the well-publicised incident of a British captain of the Zong, throwing overboard sick slaves so he could reclaim the ‘lost cargo’ insurance. This painting is not seen as a record of a particular incident but an increasing ‘deeply pessimistic cosmic vision in which humanity struggles vainly against elemental forces‘ p658 Turner wrote a poem The Fallacies of Hope, printed in the catalogue.

Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre (1787-1851) & William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-77) both announced their independent photographic inventions publicly in 1839. FT recalled trying to sketch a landscape using what sounds like a Camera Lucida on his honeymoon, lacking in talent the idea of the ‘fixing’ the image from Camera Obscura developed in his mind. Vermeer & Canaletto had used a CO. p660 Also, discovered  in early 18thC that certain chemicals darkened on exposure to light. Thomas Wedgwood (1771-1805) (son of the famous pottery manufacture) in 1800 explored this with a mind to record images. In France, Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) also experimented with some success on metal and glass plates, Daguerre took those secrets, developed them and by 1837 was able to record a Parisian street onto silver coated copper plate, one of the first daguerreotypes . Meanwhile Fox T independently experimented with a different process, two stages because his camera recorded negative images on transplant paper which had to be fixed, placed over another sheet of sensitised paper and again exposed to light to make a positive print.

Daguerre’s process was adapted for 2 decades in Europe & USA for the rapidly growing demand for portraits. Daguerreotype studios opened in the US (1st in 1840) & by 1853 there were 86 in NY alone! p660 Portraiture made available to ordinary people. prints were $2, the eventually 12cent. reflection of an increasingly materialistic culture. Daguerreotype of Fredrick Douglas (strong-minded political ex-slave) more representative of his character than any of his painted pictures where his features have been softened, Daguerreotypes revealed ‘the secret character with a truth no painter would venture upon‘ (Nathainel Hawthorne, 1851) p660. However figures stiffly posed with serious expressions they could hold for the long exposure time. Each one was a unique object, unlike FT’s process where many prints could come from one negative, a little like lithographs could be pulled from the stone. FT published ‘The pencil of nature‘ in 6 instalments. He called his negatives calotypes, beautiful images. Robert Adamson (1821-48) took up the process, collaborating with painter Octavius Hill (1802-70) who used the photos as references to work from. individual prints were exhibited and sold by art dealers, like etchings and engravings. FT prints were less well defined that Daguerreotypes because of the rough paper, this was superseded when glass negatives came in 1850s which helped provide greater definition and sharpness but some artists preferred the fuzzy ones as works of art rather than visual documents.

Critics were against photography becoming a new art form. e.g. poet and art critic Charles Baudelaire spoke out in 1859, particularly against people posed as historical subjects, he didn’t like that there was no artists touch. Some artists such as Delacroix incorporated photographs into their workflow to draw sketches of nudes. Manet, Courbet and others used photographs as aids to provide them with records of events.

Development of sensitive plates and mechanical shutter allowed photographers to record of swift action. e.g. Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) Galloping Horse, 1878, p684. Flash-light powder was invented in 1887, allowing documentary photographer Jacob A Riis (1819-1914) to record the New York slums, culminating in a book, How the other half lives (1890), in which some of his photos were reproduced using the newly developed Half-tone process. This process enabled cheap widespread diffusion of photographic images but tended to smudge detail and soften impact. His photos, which he made into lantern slides enabled the middle classes to go slumming without discomfort. His compositions actually had the effect of distancing the sordid subject matter, insidious in their supposedly innocent objectivity. p685.

Styles and movements

As the 19thC progressed a new attitude to art arose known as Romanticism, not a specific style as such but a change in artistic philosophy, old rules on what constitutes art were thrown out & feeling, not reason was the guiding aesthetic, this allowed artists to express their individuality, sincerity & have their own styles. Whereas Neoclassisc artists strived for a style of ‘impersonal clarity for the universally relevant and eternally valid truths’, the ‘Romantics only guiding light was their inner feelings.’ p640 ‘Neoclassisc not rejected but fragmented.’ p642

German ‘Nazarene’ artists demonstrated  hypersensitive response to exquisiteness of natural form.

Non-European people began to be seen as individuals rather than exotic. e.g. Mme Benoist, however they were still shown v different to pictures of white women, often with breasts exposed or in riské dress with plunging necklines p642. At this time women in paintings were associated with divinity (e.g. Venus) or personification e.g. Kauffmans self-portrait as colour, or Delacroix’s painting of liberty.

Artists depicting scenes of contemporary life including reportage of events but actually propaganda inviting venation of subject e.g. Gros, neoclassical simplify & clarify gave way to richness, complexity & bravura handling of paint. His style was emulated & extended, & his work disseminated as prints but a style change seen in his, and Gericault’s works focus no longer heroism but suffering of the troops and victims started to appear in pictures as well as victors. Gericault’s famous The Raft of the Medusa, 1819, a horrifying incident from the papers (p646). victims of incompetence (of the royalist captain) surfing for no noble cause, later regarded as political allegory, ‘France herself, our whole sociality, is on that raft‘ said historian Jules Michelet in 1847 when clouds of revolution were again gathering, p647.

Goya was a contemporary of JL David, & leading painter in Spain in 1780s. p644 He was employed at the Royal Court, welcomed the enlightenment, shared hatred of injustice, religious fanaticism, superstition and cruelty. He made etchings Los Caprichos, 1799, & Los Desastres de la Gurra, which showed the monsters lurking in the human brain & man’s capacity for cruelty to man (reactions to the French invaders), not intended for the public (unlike political piece 3rd of May). Poet & painter William Blake (1757-1827), like Casper David Friedrick (1774-1840) confronted a world in his art which Christianity and Enlightenment have become clouded over. His art & writings go hand in hand, he needed to resolve agonising conflicts between his own imagination and understanding and his faith.

Jean-August-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) picture censored in the 1819 salon, Odalisque, was the first of many nudes in west Asian settings that he painted. Painted in cool blue sensuous surroundings of a harem, she was thought to have too many vertebrae. He seems to have believed that a women’s place was a harem. p647 Madame Moitessier, 1851, was a high society portrait, painted surrounded by luxury with a pose slightly reminiscent of Aphrodite. p648  He was an unruly pupil of JL David and became self-appointed guardian of the Classic tradition by mid-19th C and a devotee of Raphael, a champion of line, and great opponent of the champion of colour Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863). His personal style was of dynamic energy and great sweeping splashes of rich colour, e.g. Death of Sardanapalus, 1828, spatial relationships are ambiguous , rules of perspective are disregarded and anatomy is distorted. p648 shown in 1828 Salon when Romanticism in art was being equated with liberalism in politics. P648/9 for decryption of 28th July: Liberty leading the people.

John Constable (1776-1837) said that painting was another word for feeling (as did David Friedrich), his sketches are full of feeling but his finished works seem over-elaborated to our modern eyes. He disagreed, he said of his 6 foot sketches that it was something which ‘will not server more than one state of mind & will not serve to drink at again and again‘. p654 the sketches were an attempt to capture the initial vision and his finished paintings were his mature reflections. Difference between a diary & autobiography. His subjects were of landscapes with manmade canals or other manually worked land. Constable’s contemporary, landscape painter Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) had a more impulsive style, less reflective. He was concerned with visual appearances of fleeting effects of light which he sort to recreate, not represent & believed in the practice of painting as an end in itself. He was often ridiculed in the press when his paintings were misunderstood e.g. The Slave Ship.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was the greatest French landscape painter of his time, sensitive to qualities of light & atmosphere with the knowledge of tone indicating form & suggestive of distance. His naturalism was determined by his choice of viewpoint like that of a photographer (this new style of seeing was just 4 years before the announcements of photography inventions).

In Architecture, there was no one set style but each building was done in singular style. Gothic Revival in England in early 18thC. Gothic regarded as national style, evolved at the time of the Magna Carta, the founding of British liberties. Controversy caused when in 1836 the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt according to Gothic style rather than solely Classical, although the result was a compromise. General design by Charles Barry (1795-1860), Gothic touches by Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-52). Pugin’s ideas on Gothic as a principle rather than a style freed Gothic revival from being a deception. These ideas spread wider by John Ruskin (1819-1900).

Juste milieu (Happy Medium) genre, historical paintings which avoided all extremes and overt Romanticism. They demanded accuracy of detail & local colour. Artists expected to research historically eg. Paul Delaroch’s “The Execution of Lady Jane Grey“, 1833. p665. Subjects chosen to attract immediate popular attention when 1st exhibited and profitable subsequent prints. Sometimes, such as in Italy they also had overt political overtones.

Pre-Raphaelite movement was started in 1848 by group of young artists in England, William Holman Hunt (1827-1910), John Everette Millais (1829-96), Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82) & 4 others. Misleading name as they advocated a return to nature and renunciation of academic practices (rather than the art of period prior to Raphael). They reacted against the ‘frivolous art of today‘, much as Socialist, self-taught Frenchman Gustave Courbet (1819-77) did, albeit in a different way, with Realism. There are no heroic gestures, no firm centre to vast compositions, limited colours, commonplace subjects such as “A Burial At Ornans”, 1849-50. p667. Realism encouraged choosing of unconventional subject matter including sordid or industrial scenes. The motto of the Realists was ‘il taut etre de son temps‘, one must be of ones own time. p672.

Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75) specialised in depicting rural working class people. He refused to accept Socialist interpretations of his work, creating a slightly fabricated uneducated peasant painter persona for himself, actually fav pupil of Delaroche in Paris. Later settled into the Barbizon School (lead by Theodore Rousseau (1812-67).

Edouard Manet (1832-83) was often hailed as first modern painter. The sincerity & realism of his art gave it a character of protest. He redefined sincerity to signify artistic honesty rather than emotional honesty. He was a Socialist but came from a respectable bourgeois family. He wanted to be accepted by the Salon but also to shock, which he did with several of his paintings. e.g. Olympia.

The Americans had their own style of portraits, genres, still lifes & landscapes based on naturalism & realism & sense of country. Thomas Cole (1801-48), of the so called Hudson River School, said ‘All nature here is new to art’ p. 674. They still followed the European convention of dark foreground strip & strong repoussoirs (todo see glossary), and incited scale with tiny human figures. America presented artists with landscapes of the grandest scales. Niagara, 1857 by Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) did away with these conventions. The work of Martin Johnson Heade (1819-1904) and others was termed ‘Luminist‘ to describe the early morning light depicted in the landscapes.

Inside and outside influences

Napoleon harnessed the spirit of classicism & commissioned many public buildings for Paris inspired by Ancient Rome to bolster his right to rule. He also included Ancient Egyptian influences eg Egyptian obelisk on the Place de la Concorde. His architects sent these designs abroad to inspire other nations too. Many French artists influenced by ‘The Cult of Napoleon’, Others like Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) inspired by horrors of Napoleonic wars.

Romantics were partly influenced by medieval art & literature, but given the nature of the movement, personality & circumstances more of a direct influence on individual artistic styles.

Gros was the most influential painter of his generation, Goya’s The second of May 1808 & the third of May 1808 might be seen as replies to Capitulation of Madrid by Gros. Old masters (eg Rubens/Michelangelo) & the Grand Style influenced Gros (p643), Delacroix & Blake. Ingres was a devotee of Raphael. Delacroix also inspired by Gericault, & Byron (e.g. Death of Sardanapalus), Blake also influenced by Durer, Newton, Protestant mystics & Neoplatonists.

Painter Casper David Friedrich influenced by his pious German Protestant background & the new concept of Deutschheit which was inspiring many German artists, poets & philosophers.

Constable influenced by Poet William Wordsworth, (1770-1850)

French landscape artists influenced less by transcendental ideas from poets and thinkers and more by Rousseau’s 18thC ideas on beauty of uncorrupted nature and the cult of individual sensibility he promoted. p658

Manet also influenced by old masters, also Chardin, Goya (e.g. The execution of the Emperor Maximilian, p672) and Japanese prints.

Painted portraits influenced photography more than the other way around. Early Photography subjects showed influence of Dutch still life’s.

German trained Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) who painted  idealised early scenes from America’s Far West was influenced by Turner. p675

Thomas Eakins was influenced by Rembrandt, Velazquez and Ribera (e.g. The Gross Clinic, 1875).

Critics, thinkers and historians

Classification of natural species by Linnaeus, (Carl von Linn, 1707-78) & others lead them to realise they were part of evolution, theories put forward by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) & Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), Charles Darwin’s grandad, (classification of species) and later Charles Darwin (evolution of species). Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), ‘greatest thinker of the time’, gave new direction to philosophy away from rational deduction to analysis of general concepts. This heralded an end to philosophy being a branch of natural science. p637 Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) helped develop a new German philosophy based on ideas of nationalism & concept of Germaness/Deutschheit.

Goethe, greatest creative writer of the time, wrote essay in 1799 on Wincklemann, he deplored the movement of Romantic philosophy. The Romantics included poet, art critic & writer Charles Boudelaire (1821-67), Byron was the ‘most famous poet of the day’ p648, Victor Hugo (1802-85) was the leader of French Romantic Literature.

Karl Marx (1818-83) & Friedrich Hegel (1820-95) wrote the Communist Manifesto, London 1848, which called for ‘the forceable overthrow of all existing social conditions’. Concerned with theoretical certainties rather than rights of man or systems of gov. Robert Owen (1771-1858) wrote factory essays, involved in trade unionism and co-operative movement. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was his French contemporary. Charles Dickens (1812-70) was a famous 19thC author.

Poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850) wrote The Prelude, vividly remembered ‘spots of time‘ from childhood that ‘retain a renovating virtue‘ p654.

German poet Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) wrote about Delacroix’s Liberty leading the people for the Salon.

German critic and architect Heinrich Hubsch (1781-1841) wrote ‘In Which Style Should we Build’, 1828, defining Romantic architecture, no singular overall style but dictates each architectural design must be one style. Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841) was a brilliant architect who tried pretty much all the styles looking for one of his own.

Anti-papist, social reformer, writer & art critic John Ruskin (1819-1900) was a perceptive admirer of Turner. He also gave Pugin’s views of Gothic revival more exposure.

An essay by Nikolai Chernysheskii (1828-89) started a Russian Realist movement in 1855. p673 Lev Nicolayevich Tolstoy was Russian thinker, social reformer & novelist.

American artist & theorist, Asher B Durand (1796-1886) wrote ‘Letters on Landscape Painting’ (New York 1855) about work of Hudson River painters including Thomas Cole (1801-48). Historian Francis Parkman (1823-93) wrote about the American wilderness. Henry David Thoreau (1817-62) was not pleased by its steady erosion. p675 Virginian writer, Moncure F. Conway (1832-1907), was an outspoken critic of Slavery.

French photographer Gaspard-Felix Tournachon/Nadar (1820-1910) wrote about photography theory in 1856. p682

Photographer Julia Margaret Cameron took photos of the poet Tennyson, Victorian ‘sage’ Carlyle and the astronomer Herschel. p683

American James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851) wrote the Leatherstocking novels, enjoyed around the time that artist turned politician George Caleb Bingham painted Fur Traders descending the Missouri, 1885.


The notes are much too long for the assignment, longer than the previous one but it was a bigger chapter with more underlying factors which I wanted to understand and remember but, again, since they are for my personal reference, at this stage it doesn’t matter too much, I’ll do a bit more of the section and shorten them at the end when I have all three chapters covered. I think much of the early century info on Napoleon will collapse down nicely when this and the last chapter are written up together. Also, many of the critical facts could have been put into multiple sections so with the template as it is there seems to be quite a bit of crossover, although I tried to avoid duplication. I have deliberately written way more notes that required for the assignment so that I can lift them out into separate blog posts of important bits I’d like to develop further with additional research if time permits.

I noticed that women as allegorical symbols of strength, revolution and liberty cropped up in pictures again and again, eg Sabine Women by JL David, Eugène Delacroix’s The 28th July: Liberty Leading the People and Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi and of course the statue of liberty in the US.

The impulse to modernity was expressed in the nineteenth century in three main ways: through Romanticism, the realism of Courbet and the work of the Impressionists.(course notes p119)

Looking forward to the assignment, Gericault’s famous The Raft of the Medusa, 1819, might be good one for annotation, p646/7? Or perhaps Goya’s The 3rd of May 1808, 1814, info p645/6). Another one for consideration that caught my eye was Napolean in the Plague House at Jaffa, 1804 by Gros p643



Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing


Essential Reading: 18th Century ‘Enlightenment and Liberty’ – WHA Chapter Fourteen

Political, economic or social factors

Despite being the Age of Reason, Christianity still prevailed across both Protestant & Catholic countries in the 18thC, now concentrating on personal devotion & piety (reflected by simplicity of external forms of religious buildings). In France, in 1699, Louis XIV requested that paintings be more light-hearted & youthful for Versailles so Rococo style developed, rebelling against the Academy whose biennial salons were the only important art exhibitions at the time, it reasserted its authority by the 1750’s though. Elaborate open air festivals had played an important part in European court life ever since the Renaissance, combining entertainment with instruction about the magnificence, wisdom and power of princes. Hence the creation of Zwinger in Germany. p617 In England, George I (1714-27) developed a constitutional monarchy which gave political power to land-owning oligarchy & Classicism & Roman republican virtues of Cicero taught in schools, ideas over the landscape garden began to change. Love seen as a ‘natural’ passion but one which should be restrained within the social convention. “Natural signified not the wild and lawless, but the divinely ordered universe, as revealed by Newton, in which everything had its appointed place. Liberty could be regarded as natural only within this structure, which provided the model of the social system“. p623 New discoveries at Herculaneum (1738) & Pompeii (from 1748) fed new insights into ancient culture into Classicism. Museums regarded for first time as institutions for public education. Artistic works were commissioned for sole purpose of improving public morality eg “The Oath of the Horatii” work by political painter Jacque-Louis David (1748-1825). The subject, the nobility of ancient roman stoicism & patriotism would have been approved by Louis XVIs minister for the arts but became a symbol for impending revolution. The latter half of the 18thC was characterised by wars & revolution. 1754-63, 7years war started by conflict between Britain & France. Art increasingly used as propaganda, America’s Declaration of Independence meant US became the promised land of the Enlightenment. Classicism was regarded as being in line with their political ideals, Benjamin West’s Death of General Wolfe, 1770, was a poster child & popular print representing a turning point in modern history, in contemporary dress (reportage) but painted in the Grand Style.  French Revolution! 1789 saw the Bastille demolished, the King of France lost control of Paris & subsequent political changes (including formation of a national assembly, declaration of rights of man, abolition of feudal rights, nationalisation of church property, riots) forced every voting Frenchman to take a side. Jacobin club extremists administrated the Terror, the guillotine saw a lot of action including Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette. When more moderate views came in many were imprisoned, including JL David. Napoleon Bonaparte rose in prominence, leading a coup in 1799. Venetian government on point of dissolution during life of Francesco Guardi & Canaletto, finally falling to Napoleon in 1797.

Changes to status or training of artists

In 18thC France, private collectors were prominent enough to provide work for artists. A dispute between those who favoured drawing over colour because it appealed to the intellect (Poussinists) & those who believed colour was needed to imitate nature making an impression on the senses (Rubenists) bisected the French Academy. Louis XIV changed favour from those artists who supported the Academy to those who dissented. Engravers respected & well paid because they produced prints of the works of artists, spreading their fame. Venetian Fresco painter Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) was greatest & most expensive of the time. Collaborations between architects, painters & sculptors meant integration of skillsets. Robert Adam (1728-92) set the tone for architects ruling supreme whilst craftsmen merely carried out his designs, the gap between artists & craftsmen widened especially in England where industrialisation was more advanced. In Josiah Wedgwood‘s (1730-95) pottery factory for example artisans followed predetermined patterns. Artists demanded recognition of superior status resulting in Royal Academy (RA) founding in 1768 with first president being Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-92), knighted year after founding, who was obsessed with status. He elevated status of portraiture, posing his sitters in classical poses of mythical figures. Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807) was only one of 2 women founders of the  RA until 1920s. She was commissioned to paint 4 large oval self-portraits for the ceiling of the lecture hall covering the 4 elements of painting, colour, design, composition & genius of invention. Sculptor Antonio Canova (1757-1822) refused state sponsored training in Rome to copy the Greek masters because he didn’t want to be a mere copyist so he went self-funded on his own terms. He was given a block of marble to carve as he wished, rather than prescribed by a patron, Theseus & the Dead Minotaur was a success, he was awarded important commissions in Rome despite his youth.

Development of materials and processes

Industrialisation was the theme for 18th C processes, factory-like efficiency pervaded. The world’s 1st factory created (1717 -1721), the Silk Mill by the River Derwent, for twisting or doubling silk into thread. The 1st spinning machine was patented in England in 1738, the first spinning mill in 1771 which was developed by Richard Arkwright in Derbyshire. In Rome, Antonia Canova developed an efficient studio practice where he modelled statues firstly in clay, then took plaster casts which were marked at points from which assistants could roughly carve the marble blocks, then he could finish with chisels, drills & rasps allowing for more output. Duplicates of Houdon’s sculptures were churned out in his studio in various sizes & media as propaganda for the ‘cult of great men of modern times that was promoted by thinkers of the Enlightenment’. p628.

Styles and movements

Music in the 18th C was mostly religious despite chamber music and opera developing, notable artists included Bach (1685-1750), Handel (1685-1759), Mozart (175-91), Haydn (1732-1809). In painting, secular works were in minority but the innovative art of the time, more romantic themes emerged. Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) painted fête galantes, fanciful paintings of well-dressed people frolicking outdoors. Early 18thC style of architecture (as seen in French townhouses and German churches) was one of a plain exterior and lavish interior, more concerned with manipulation of space than with form.  French Rococo was ‘delicate, sensual and often capricious’, ‘a frivolous confection of shells and shell-like forms’. p608, & later in the 18thC was dismissed as catering to the whims of the upper classes. It was criticised at the time for being at odds with the rational thought of Enlightenment, but its spontaneity & novelty deviated from the demands of academic rules. ‘Its genius lay in nuances, subtle juxtapositions of forms, gentle gradations and mingling of colours, the elusive dancing rhythms of only slightly differentiated motifs’ p609. It introduced taste to small rooms such as boudoirs & a more intimate feel for larger. Spaces which fit the inhabitants, eg ‘A reading of moliere’ by Jean francois de Troy (1679-1752), p611, Rococo interior which reminded me of some of the rooms in Hylands House. Genre pittoresque was a decorative style created by Nicolas Pineau (1684-1754) & Juste-Aurele Meissonier (c1693-1750), with pictorial motifs such as shells and tendrils with defined structure. Lightness, elegance & gaiety, p612 Eg Hotel de Soubise in Paris. The curvilinear forms also lent themselves to sensual and carnal paintings, intended to be for boudoirs, e.g. ‘Hercules and Omphale’ by Francois Boucher (1703-70). Jean-Simeon Chardin (1699-1779) on the other hand painted ‘downstairs’ scenes & used more earthy, wholesome colour palette often with moral overtones & of new themes showing the middle class life. Both appealed to the same patrons though. Louis XV’s mistress Mme du Barry commissioned Jean-Honore Fragonard’s work ‘The Progress of Love’ (4 parkland scenes), which palpitated with a new life and amorous energy, but it was rejected in favour of 1 by Joseph-Marie Vien (1716-1809) whose work was more solemn and classical in style and almost a direct critical opposition to Rococo. German Rococo developed from exuberantly Italianate Baroque (Borromini and Guarini) and the difference between the two in Germany & Italy is slight & can only be measured subjectively. Church interiors were designed to give a vision of heaven. French trained Francois Curvillies (1695-1768) introduced Genre picturesque to Germany. Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753) was a prolific German architect who designed the lavish Rococo staircase of the Residenz, Wurzburg, Germany, Tiepolo’s painting on the ceiling above the stairs was designed to be seen from multiple viewpoints whilst climbing. ‘Painting, architecture, and sculpture (stucco figures and huge shells in the corners) interpenetrate to create a total environment masking the frontier between realty and fiction.‘ p619. Neo-Palladian style of architecture developed from the English distaste of baroque, Scottish architect Colen Campbell (1676-1729) was one of several architects who wanted to return to Classical principles by way of Andrea Palladio. The style showed off social standing amongst the wealthy by the classicism of implied Roman republican virtues. ‘A Neo-Palladian house declared its owes respect for propriety and decorum and with its dressed stonework , columns and pediment, marked his social standing far move obviously than the 17th century brick-build gentlemen’s house’ p622 It can be seen in paintings by William Hogarth which also show Italianate pictures on the wall & Rococo style interior. The landscape park (as seen in Gainsborough’s work Mr and Mrs Andrews 1749) was the most important British contribution to visual arts, seen as a symbol of liberty, contrast with the rigidly formal gardens of Versailles. The ditch which separated gentleman’s park from land beyond was called a ‘ha-ha’. These picturesque English gardens often had a classical temple to lend them a note of nostalgia for one’s Grand Tour which rounded off a classical education for the wealthy where they could see old masters painted in the grand style. In America, enlightened thinkers demanded moral rectitude, simplicity, clarity & logic. True style developed, founders of the US were depicted as god-like figures from mythology but Jefferson (1743-1826) & George Washington were depicted in contemporary dress (by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828), leading sculptor of his day). Houdon’s sculptures were a return to nature. Contemporary dress in art suggested reportage or ‘truth’ of the moral message. Rococo finally renounced in 1750s, seen simultaneously in France, Germany and England. In Neoclassicism, an extension of the True style, compounded by Wincklemann’s writings, mythological scenes were portrayed which had  not actually been described before, classicism no longer a slavish imitation, eg Canova & JL David. Canova  revived sculpture, with a style that was less personal & gentle liberating it from architectural settings, designing work to be seen from a revolving plinth. His were the first great works of art to be was specifically intended for Museums. David’s style of painting fused classicism with contemporary reportage, and secular intensity almost religious & political propaganda (examples include commemorating the martyrs of the French revolution such as Marat, recording the Tennis Court Oath & equestrian portrait of Napoleon crossing the Alps). Architectural parallels to David’s work can be found in designs of Etienne-Louis Boulee (1728-99) and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806). There was a return to antiquity with new boldness & simplicity, no frivolities only unbroken contours , clean-cut lines, right angles & simple shapes. The emphasis on geometry as opposed to free-flowing space.

Inside and outside influences

In the 18th C, thinkers, critics & writers of the Enlightenment inspired artists. Artists, architects & thinkers alike were influenced by Descartes & Isaac Newton (1642-1727), who was seen as hero of the enlightenment, eg Etienne-Louis Boulee. Artists inspired each other, Antoine Watteau inspired artists such as Boucher, Gainsborough & Goya who in turn was influenced by Rubens & various Venetian artists. The sensitivity of Chardin & sensuality of Boucher influenced Jean-Honore Fragonard (1732-1806). Bavarian sculptor Ignaz Gunther (1725-75) was influenced by Italian Mannerism, late 16thC German statues & heir to traditional German naturalistic style dating back to Middle Ages. Bolognese were influenced by their own early 17thC masters. Venetian’s including Francisco Guardi (1712-93) looked back at titian, Veronese & Tintoretto. Tiepolo’s ceiling was a tribute to his own Venetian school & the art of Paolo Veronese. Demand from English patrons for Canaletto’s cool clear views of Venice & Rosalba Carriera’s portraits. Classical influence on architects & artists with Gothic & Chinese affording amusing deviations to emphasise the classical norm. Rome was dominated by classicism of the High Renaissance & a classical education & Grand Tour influenced everyone. Classical influence on Americans after Independence, not because it was in fashion in Europe but because of the republican political morals perceived by it. Wincklemann’s reappraisal of art had a pervading  influence everywhere but especially in Rome, Canova & JL David had full artist conversion. Canova also influenced by Scottish painter Gavin Hamilton (1723-98) , Wincklemann’s friend.

Critics, thinkers and historians

18th C thinkers questioned Christian teaching but didn’t actually rejected religion. In 1784, German philosopher Immanuel Kant declared ‘Dare to know! … the motto of the Enlightenment’ (p.608). John Locke (1632-1704) wrote Concerning Human Understanding essay, 1690, outlining beliefs on colour. Claiming nothing was innate & all ideas were derived from experience. John-Baptiste Dubos (1670-1742) furthered this, writing what appealed to the senses outweighed what appealed to the mind. In 1711, Alexander Pope wrote a key essay on Criticism. Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (1694-1778) thought that this could only be judged by ‘taste’, which was a preserve of the educated class. Denis Diderot (1713-84), art critic, novelist, essayist & editor of the French Encyclopédie, reviewed Paris Salons in 1760’s. His style of writing deemphasised the theory, it was if he were standing in front of the art, dismissive of Boucher, but pro Greuze & Chardin. Leading journalists in 1712 , Joseph Addison & Richard Steele, preached about secular moral attitudes, e.g. love as ‘natural’ passion within a social framework & inspired satire in artists such as Hogarth (1697-1764). Sir Joshua Reynolds delivered Discourses every year at the RA. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) was a fierce critic of ‘evils of contemporary social life’, p.628, he advocated cultivation of natural sentiments & called for didactic art to commemorate the men who had defended their country or those who had a great genius. Johann Joachim Wincklemann (1717-68) completely reappraised the art of antiquity in his first hugely influential book, ‘Thoughts on Imitation of Greek Works of Art’, 1755, written from point of view of a man of the Enlightenment, it discussed statues as living works of art & endorsed imitating antiquity only with a shift in emphasis from form to spiritual essence, art as an expressive medium rather than mimetic. Journalist Jean-Paul Marat, (immortalised in JL David‘s painting The Dead Marat, murdered in his bath by Political rival Charlotte Corday), extolled ‘the despotism of liberty‘.



The notes are a bit long for the assignment but since they for my reference at this stage it doesn’t matter too much, I’ll do a bit more of the section and hopefully be able to shorten them at the end when I have all three chapters covered, I think this chapter runs nicely into the next with artists like JL David following Napoleon’s career trajectory. I wanted to keep it long so I could pull bits out as per the A3 feedback to use separate set of responses on the blog to “develop short sections of analysis (examine how key components in each chapter fit together and relate to each other), comparison (explore the similarities and differences between the ideas you are reading about), and synthesis (bring together references to different sources or viewpoints).” I should probably introduce a new category or tag for these to mark them clearly but for now (until I’ve read all three chapters) I’ll keep them in here in long form..

I must say, I should have studied this section before my visit to Hylands house! It will certainly help me with the write-up and background reading on what I saw. ‘A reading of moliere’ by Jean francois de Troy (1679-1752), p611, Included a Rococo interior which reminded me of some of the rooms in Hylands.  p622 has some useful looking quotes  re Hogarth and the décor for example. I pity the fact that I couldn’t visit the grounds though (with a grumpy child and pushchair  in tow it wasn’t practical), the concept of the garden was as important as the building for a neoclassical country houses as I’m now coming to realise so perhaps I can check that bit out from above in google maps when I come to write up the visit in more detail.

The 18thC clearly splits stylistically into two, the fancy, twiddly Baroqueish Rococo style, which was all the rage with the very fashionable and the very rich European élite (it’s very over the top as many things of fashion are!) and then a return to classical in the latter half of the century when demands for liberty were widespread and they needed an art for free people, ordinary people and looked back to the ancient republics. This was the Age of Reason, due to the Enlightenment, the philosophical movement which swept Europe much as humanism had done in the previous century. The condemnation of despotism, criticism of the established church and state ended up with demands for liberty and political representation culminating in the revolutions, both American and French. I noticed that painters of the time are much more politically involved and this is shown in their art, especially JL David. I found his painting of The Tennis Court Oath really interesting because of the reportage contemporary look but with poses from antiquity making the scene like so many new Romans gathered. This age seems so much more ‘modern’ to me than much or the other chapters I’ve studied because every day I’m surrounded by (probably 18th C) classical buildings and columns whilst walking to work in the heart of the city in Bank, also when you watch the news from America’s political race its all set in and around the buildings which look like this, so its old, but it’s actually still a modern setting today. The images we see today are often politically motivated in the same sort of sense, lots of propaganda. Ditto the landscape, this was the age of the more natural looking landscape garden in England and much of the beautiful picturesque views that I drive past when I visit family in Dorset probably came out of these ideals. On a different note, I was unsurprised to learn that Canaletto’s work was a favoured by English patrons. I love his work, it was a fav of  my Grandma who passed that on to me from a young age of seeing the reproductions in her house. It helps that much of the famous views in Venice still look like that when you visit them now (except filled with modern tourists).



Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing