Essential Reading: WHA ‘Romanticism to Realism’

Now read WHA Chapter Fifteen, ‘Romanticism to Realism’. Pay particular
attention to the ways in which artists responded to the challenges of
industrialisation and the exposure to non-western cultures brought about
by colonialism.

Political, economic or social factors

In early 19thC revolutionary changes in philosophy and science made the universe seem more mysterious rather than less, the Age of Reason was over. Europe saw the ‘despotism of liberty’ of Napoleons imperial rule. p637 His armies were sent to revolutionise Europe & his ideas spread to south america, west asia and india, this began period of political & social unrest. Power in France transferred from old aristocracy to bourgeoisie (via the directory (1794-9), Napoleon as 1st consul from 1799 & Emperor from 1804, restored Bourbon monarchy (1815-30), constitutional monarchy of Louis-Philippe (1830-48), 2nd republic (1848-51), 2nd empire of napoleon III (1851-70) and then 3rd republic). Press censorship caused artists such as Honore Daumier to satirized in lithographs. Elsewhere in Europe the middle classes also created revolutions to be involved in government. ‘Everywhere there was conflict between forces of continuity (monarchy, landed aristocracy, & church) and forces of change’. p637

Rapid rise in population, spread of industrialisation, enrichment of entrepreneurs, drift from country to city & emergence of an urban proletariat mean the growth of new social structures not regulated by old systems of government which were based on notion of static order and immutable values. p637

The Industrialisation revolution began in England in 1780s because no guild restrictions or customs barriers as per Europe. Exploited still growing colonial empire and overseas trade but cost of lower social level human suffering v great. In Manchester 1826, overproduction led to trade recession & thousands of unemployed. successful factory owners had country houses to retreat to while workforce had cheap redbrick back-to-back hosing which turned into slums. From 1830s, factory owners made company towns for workers and cared about their welfare (Owen & Fourier’s theories). Air polluted by in industrialisation meant introduction of public parks, lungs of the city. e.g. Regents park designed by architect John Nash (1752-1835) surrounded by middle class houses. Country estate views now available to those classes. Inspired by the parks in Liverpool, American journalist Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) took back the public park idea to the US and collaborated with Calvert Vaux (1824-95) on NY’s Central Park in 1863.

p656  The Atlantic slave trade started as soon as Europeans began to colonise the Americas, was still on the increase in mid-18thC when Christians/Quakers & free thinkers driven by a new moral imperative & ideas of freedom as a right began to campaign for it to stop. Abolished in Denmark in 1792, & in France in 1794, Britain, USA and finally Brazil in 1831, all of which prompted much discussion of the emancipation of women. Only the trading was abolished though, actually owning slaves was legal in the British Empire until 1834, French empire until 1848, USA 1865, Spanish colonies 1873 and Brazil until 1888. Only then because of a combination of humanitarian demands & economic & political pressure. Freedom was a sensitive issue, especially since the French revolution(s) so artists (such as Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802-58) & Auguste-Francois Biard (1798-1882)) concentrated on the slave trade aspect. The Medusa has political overtones re slavery about it. Biard & Turner both showed their work in the 1840 RA summer exhibition (a month ahead of the inter nation antislavery convention). However the British self-righteous indignation was a barrier to the commercial exploitation of Africa. Most images of black people of the time aroused pity rather than admiration, Nathaniel Jocelyn’s proud portrait of a black hero, Cinque, (who lead an uprising on a slave ship) was refused to be shown at the AFS of Philadelphia because it was too controversial.

History now dominated 19th C thought, photography played into this with more accurate records of events, earlier works of art & architecture. Marx & Hegel based their philosophies on historical precedent. p662/5 Art for Art’s Sake was attacked as much as commended, p668.

America had booming industrial economy, Yosemite/Yellowstone National Parks were created to protect the wilderness in 1864 despite Civil War. The most active promoters for the parks included Frederick Law Olmsted. The civil war also provoked the most anxious heart searchings on the problem of national identity, reflected by the arts of course e.g. Winslow Homer (1836-1910). In the South, 1876, African Americans effected by no further effort to implement Fifteenth Amendment (p680) and segregation ever more enforced. The Native Americans were seen as the enemy of civilisation. Their alliance with the British during the Revolution and Caleb Bingham’s rather hostile images of them didn’t help. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, Sept 1862, presented a Unionist View of the state of the nation. p679

Much discussion on the nature of Photography and whether it could be considered art culminated in a lawsuit in Paris, 1861-2, where the judge ruled that ‘photographs could be […] products of thought and spirit, of taste and intelligence, bearing the imprint of a personally and thus a work of art’, p682  They were still excluded from the Saloons from 1850 though. They were barred from the RA in London into the 20thC (apart from one accidental, hand-coloured, acceptance in 1861)! Artists such as Ingres petitioned against the ruling but Delacroix refused to add to the petition. The poet Alphonse de Lamartine thought that photography was a collaboration between artists and the sun. Fox Talbot remarked that photographs reveal details that the eye does not normally notice, and the split second timing catches moments not registered by the human eye. Like the illusion of a horses ‘flying gallop’ and the spokes of a rotating wheel not being blurred. Rodin remarked that ‘the artist is truthful and photography lies‘. p685

Changes to status or training of artists

Artistic thought changed last decade of 18thC and 1st of 19thC, out of the radical changes brought by revolution came notions about artistic freedom, identity, sincerity, uniqueness. About the power of artists to transcend logical thought processes and tap into unconscious states of mind . p636 they were and worked mainly for the middle classes. When the Louvre opened to the public, artists were able to freely study the works of the old masters which were previously unavailable to view.

Demand from the middle class/bourgeoisie public was for an escapist art, evocations of distant times, distant lands, happy country folk and beauties of nature p640 e.g. Constable. Art dealers sold individual prints from calotypes where choice of subject proved important for paintings to secure wide & profitable diffusion of prints. Exhibiting in London, Paris and Berlin enabled artists such as Albert Bierstadt to achieve international reputations.

Women artists started to achieve prominence despite continued restrictions, still prevented from studying at art schools & life models. Although a few were pupils of JL David e.g. Mme Benoist (1768-1826), her work of a black woman was shown in the 1800 Salon. her career cut short though when her husband became a kings minister and it wasn’t ‘proper’ to have a painter as a wife.

Artists such as Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835), another pupil of JL David, reflected aspirations of empire as well as David had of the republic. e.g. Napolean in the Plague House at Jaffa, 1804.

Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) was a painter of a new type, middle class with a private income enough to support him working without commissions, this allowed him artistic freedom to choose his own subjects. Also, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot had similar financial freedom.

Turner was elected associate of the RA in 1799 and full member in 1802, Constable had to wait for associateship until 1819 and wasn’t a full member until 1829. p655

French ‘historical landscape’ painters such as Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875) had academic backing, based on precedents of Claude and Poussin. Drawing in the open countryside became the equivalent of life class where they could make etudes. Constable & turner also worked in this way.

Many of the famous American artists of the time were actually trained in Europe e.g. Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) p681

As photography equipment and technique became more readily available and increasing number of amateurs took up photography, often more successful at penetrating characters than the professionals e.g. Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-79). The camera cannot lie, but it needn’t tell the whole truth either.  Roger Fenton (1819-69) was sent by the British gov to the Crimean war to take photos to disprove blundering military leadership. During American civil war (1861-05) photographers (e.g. Mathew Brady (1823-96) and Timothy H O’Sullivan (1840–82)) were in the front lines to record the conflict. They recorded the victims & disasters of war, rather than earlier paintings which had celebrated the heroism and victory.

Development of materials and processes

Multi-storey factories were built of iron to reduce the risk of fire, this impressed Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel.

New importance given to the sketch by romantic artists and fee handling of materials which reveal in most direct manner artists individual touch.

Development of lithography in 1798. p649 preserves artists touch and doesn’t require an engraver, promoted caricaturists in newspapers.

Artists such as Blake coloured of prints by hand using watercolours.

Turner, John Constable (1776-1837) and Friedrich all began with topographically accurate views in watercolour (seen as a medium of antiquity, much used in the Orient, it was extensively taken up in latter 1/2 of 18th C mostly in England for small scale landscapes). p655 They started with etudes, precise studies of bits of the countryside (observed from life) which could be used in later studio compositions. Turner was famous for large scale watercolour ‘Romantic Landscapes’ (18thC meaning of the word). His early work influenced by John Robert Cozens (1752-97). Oils of the same period relied on heavy scumbling and much use of palette knife, these departed much more radically from accepted academic manners, shocking conservative critics. p658 Constable prepared works with drawings and full size painted sketches, worked with bravura of handling of fully loaded brush or palette knife. Famous for an almost Wordworthian ‘joy of elevated thoughts’. Friedrich’s work had hints of transcendental overtones e.g. the wanderer above the mists, 1817-18

Professor of painting at RA, Swiss painter John Henry Fuseli (1741-1825) promoted art which concealed its means, ‘the less the traces appear of the mean by which a work has been produced, the more it resembles the operations of nature’. p658 Turner clashed with this sentiment whilst at the academy, with violent colour and handling of paint that shocked the critics. The Slave ship‘s original title when exhibited in 1840 was Slavers throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying – Typhon coming on. Perhaps a reflection of the well-publicised incident of a British captain of the Zong, throwing overboard sick slaves so he could reclaim the ‘lost cargo’ insurance. This painting is not seen as a record of a particular incident but an increasing ‘deeply pessimistic cosmic vision in which humanity struggles vainly against elemental forces‘ p658 Turner wrote a poem The Fallacies of Hope, printed in the catalogue.

Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre (1787-1851) & William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-77) both announced their independent photographic inventions publicly in 1839. FT recalled trying to sketch a landscape using what sounds like a Camera Lucida on his honeymoon, lacking in talent the idea of the ‘fixing’ the image from Camera Obscura developed in his mind. Vermeer & Canaletto had used a CO. p660 Also, discovered  in early 18thC that certain chemicals darkened on exposure to light. Thomas Wedgwood (1771-1805) (son of the famous pottery manufacture) in 1800 explored this with a mind to record images. In France, Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) also experimented with some success on metal and glass plates, Daguerre took those secrets, developed them and by 1837 was able to record a Parisian street onto silver coated copper plate, one of the first daguerreotypes . Meanwhile Fox T independently experimented with a different process, two stages because his camera recorded negative images on transplant paper which had to be fixed, placed over another sheet of sensitised paper and again exposed to light to make a positive print.

Daguerre’s process was adapted for 2 decades in Europe & USA for the rapidly growing demand for portraits. Daguerreotype studios opened in the US (1st in 1840) & by 1853 there were 86 in NY alone! p660 Portraiture made available to ordinary people. prints were $2, the eventually 12cent. reflection of an increasingly materialistic culture. Daguerreotype of Fredrick Douglas (strong-minded political ex-slave) more representative of his character than any of his painted pictures where his features have been softened, Daguerreotypes revealed ‘the secret character with a truth no painter would venture upon‘ (Nathainel Hawthorne, 1851) p660. However figures stiffly posed with serious expressions they could hold for the long exposure time. Each one was a unique object, unlike FT’s process where many prints could come from one negative, a little like lithographs could be pulled from the stone. FT published ‘The pencil of nature‘ in 6 instalments. He called his negatives calotypes, beautiful images. Robert Adamson (1821-48) took up the process, collaborating with painter Octavius Hill (1802-70) who used the photos as references to work from. individual prints were exhibited and sold by art dealers, like etchings and engravings. FT prints were less well defined that Daguerreotypes because of the rough paper, this was superseded when glass negatives came in 1850s which helped provide greater definition and sharpness but some artists preferred the fuzzy ones as works of art rather than visual documents.

Critics were against photography becoming a new art form. e.g. poet and art critic Charles Baudelaire spoke out in 1859, particularly against people posed as historical subjects, he didn’t like that there was no artists touch. Some artists such as Delacroix incorporated photographs into their workflow to draw sketches of nudes. Manet, Courbet and others used photographs as aids to provide them with records of events.

Development of sensitive plates and mechanical shutter allowed photographers to record of swift action. e.g. Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) Galloping Horse, 1878, p684. Flash-light powder was invented in 1887, allowing documentary photographer Jacob A Riis (1819-1914) to record the New York slums, culminating in a book, How the other half lives (1890), in which some of his photos were reproduced using the newly developed Half-tone process. This process enabled cheap widespread diffusion of photographic images but tended to smudge detail and soften impact. His photos, which he made into lantern slides enabled the middle classes to go slumming without discomfort. His compositions actually had the effect of distancing the sordid subject matter, insidious in their supposedly innocent objectivity. p685.

Styles and movements

As the 19thC progressed a new attitude to art arose known as Romanticism, not a specific style as such but a change in artistic philosophy, old rules on what constitutes art were thrown out & feeling, not reason was the guiding aesthetic, this allowed artists to express their individuality, sincerity & have their own styles. Whereas Neoclassisc artists strived for a style of ‘impersonal clarity for the universally relevant and eternally valid truths’, the ‘Romantics only guiding light was their inner feelings.’ p640 ‘Neoclassisc not rejected but fragmented.’ p642

German ‘Nazarene’ artists demonstrated  hypersensitive response to exquisiteness of natural form.

Non-European people began to be seen as individuals rather than exotic. e.g. Mme Benoist, however they were still shown v different to pictures of white women, often with breasts exposed or in riské dress with plunging necklines p642. At this time women in paintings were associated with divinity (e.g. Venus) or personification e.g. Kauffmans self-portrait as colour, or Delacroix’s painting of liberty.

Artists depicting scenes of contemporary life including reportage of events but actually propaganda inviting venation of subject e.g. Gros, neoclassical simplify & clarify gave way to richness, complexity & bravura handling of paint. His style was emulated & extended, & his work disseminated as prints but a style change seen in his, and Gericault’s works focus no longer heroism but suffering of the troops and victims started to appear in pictures as well as victors. Gericault’s famous The Raft of the Medusa, 1819, a horrifying incident from the papers (p646). victims of incompetence (of the royalist captain) surfing for no noble cause, later regarded as political allegory, ‘France herself, our whole sociality, is on that raft‘ said historian Jules Michelet in 1847 when clouds of revolution were again gathering, p647.

Goya was a contemporary of JL David, & leading painter in Spain in 1780s. p644 He was employed at the Royal Court, welcomed the enlightenment, shared hatred of injustice, religious fanaticism, superstition and cruelty. He made etchings Los Caprichos, 1799, & Los Desastres de la Gurra, which showed the monsters lurking in the human brain & man’s capacity for cruelty to man (reactions to the French invaders), not intended for the public (unlike political piece 3rd of May). Poet & painter William Blake (1757-1827), like Casper David Friedrick (1774-1840) confronted a world in his art which Christianity and Enlightenment have become clouded over. His art & writings go hand in hand, he needed to resolve agonising conflicts between his own imagination and understanding and his faith.

Jean-August-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) picture censored in the 1819 salon, Odalisque, was the first of many nudes in west Asian settings that he painted. Painted in cool blue sensuous surroundings of a harem, she was thought to have too many vertebrae. He seems to have believed that a women’s place was a harem. p647 Madame Moitessier, 1851, was a high society portrait, painted surrounded by luxury with a pose slightly reminiscent of Aphrodite. p648  He was an unruly pupil of JL David and became self-appointed guardian of the Classic tradition by mid-19th C and a devotee of Raphael, a champion of line, and great opponent of the champion of colour Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863). His personal style was of dynamic energy and great sweeping splashes of rich colour, e.g. Death of Sardanapalus, 1828, spatial relationships are ambiguous , rules of perspective are disregarded and anatomy is distorted. p648 shown in 1828 Salon when Romanticism in art was being equated with liberalism in politics. P648/9 for decryption of 28th July: Liberty leading the people.

John Constable (1776-1837) said that painting was another word for feeling (as did David Friedrich), his sketches are full of feeling but his finished works seem over-elaborated to our modern eyes. He disagreed, he said of his 6 foot sketches that it was something which ‘will not server more than one state of mind & will not serve to drink at again and again‘. p654 the sketches were an attempt to capture the initial vision and his finished paintings were his mature reflections. Difference between a diary & autobiography. His subjects were of landscapes with manmade canals or other manually worked land. Constable’s contemporary, landscape painter Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) had a more impulsive style, less reflective. He was concerned with visual appearances of fleeting effects of light which he sort to recreate, not represent & believed in the practice of painting as an end in itself. He was often ridiculed in the press when his paintings were misunderstood e.g. The Slave Ship.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was the greatest French landscape painter of his time, sensitive to qualities of light & atmosphere with the knowledge of tone indicating form & suggestive of distance. His naturalism was determined by his choice of viewpoint like that of a photographer (this new style of seeing was just 4 years before the announcements of photography inventions).

In Architecture, there was no one set style but each building was done in singular style. Gothic Revival in England in early 18thC. Gothic regarded as national style, evolved at the time of the Magna Carta, the founding of British liberties. Controversy caused when in 1836 the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt according to Gothic style rather than solely Classical, although the result was a compromise. General design by Charles Barry (1795-1860), Gothic touches by Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-52). Pugin’s ideas on Gothic as a principle rather than a style freed Gothic revival from being a deception. These ideas spread wider by John Ruskin (1819-1900).

Juste milieu (Happy Medium) genre, historical paintings which avoided all extremes and overt Romanticism. They demanded accuracy of detail & local colour. Artists expected to research historically eg. Paul Delaroch’s “The Execution of Lady Jane Grey“, 1833. p665. Subjects chosen to attract immediate popular attention when 1st exhibited and profitable subsequent prints. Sometimes, such as in Italy they also had overt political overtones.

Pre-Raphaelite movement was started in 1848 by group of young artists in England, William Holman Hunt (1827-1910), John Everette Millais (1829-96), Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82) & 4 others. Misleading name as they advocated a return to nature and renunciation of academic practices (rather than the art of period prior to Raphael). They reacted against the ‘frivolous art of today‘, much as Socialist, self-taught Frenchman Gustave Courbet (1819-77) did, albeit in a different way, with Realism. There are no heroic gestures, no firm centre to vast compositions, limited colours, commonplace subjects such as “A Burial At Ornans”, 1849-50. p667. Realism encouraged choosing of unconventional subject matter including sordid or industrial scenes. The motto of the Realists was ‘il taut etre de son temps‘, one must be of ones own time. p672.

Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75) specialised in depicting rural working class people. He refused to accept Socialist interpretations of his work, creating a slightly fabricated uneducated peasant painter persona for himself, actually fav pupil of Delaroche in Paris. Later settled into the Barbizon School (lead by Theodore Rousseau (1812-67).

Edouard Manet (1832-83) was often hailed as first modern painter. The sincerity & realism of his art gave it a character of protest. He redefined sincerity to signify artistic honesty rather than emotional honesty. He was a Socialist but came from a respectable bourgeois family. He wanted to be accepted by the Salon but also to shock, which he did with several of his paintings. e.g. Olympia.

The Americans had their own style of portraits, genres, still lifes & landscapes based on naturalism & realism & sense of country. Thomas Cole (1801-48), of the so called Hudson River School, said ‘All nature here is new to art’ p. 674. They still followed the European convention of dark foreground strip & strong repoussoirs (todo see glossary), and incited scale with tiny human figures. America presented artists with landscapes of the grandest scales. Niagara, 1857 by Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) did away with these conventions. The work of Martin Johnson Heade (1819-1904) and others was termed ‘Luminist‘ to describe the early morning light depicted in the landscapes.

Inside and outside influences

Napoleon harnessed the spirit of classicism & commissioned many public buildings for Paris inspired by Ancient Rome to bolster his right to rule. He also included Ancient Egyptian influences eg Egyptian obelisk on the Place de la Concorde. His architects sent these designs abroad to inspire other nations too. Many French artists influenced by ‘The Cult of Napoleon’, Others like Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) inspired by horrors of Napoleonic wars.

Romantics were partly influenced by medieval art & literature, but given the nature of the movement, personality & circumstances more of a direct influence on individual artistic styles.

Gros was the most influential painter of his generation, Goya’s The second of May 1808 & the third of May 1808 might be seen as replies to Capitulation of Madrid by Gros. Old masters (eg Rubens/Michelangelo) & the Grand Style influenced Gros (p643), Delacroix & Blake. Ingres was a devotee of Raphael. Delacroix also inspired by Gericault, & Byron (e.g. Death of Sardanapalus), Blake also influenced by Durer, Newton, Protestant mystics & Neoplatonists.

Painter Casper David Friedrich influenced by his pious German Protestant background & the new concept of Deutschheit which was inspiring many German artists, poets & philosophers.

Constable influenced by Poet William Wordsworth, (1770-1850)

French landscape artists influenced less by transcendental ideas from poets and thinkers and more by Rousseau’s 18thC ideas on beauty of uncorrupted nature and the cult of individual sensibility he promoted. p658

Manet also influenced by old masters, also Chardin, Goya (e.g. The execution of the Emperor Maximilian, p672) and Japanese prints.

Painted portraits influenced photography more than the other way around. Early Photography subjects showed influence of Dutch still life’s.

German trained Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) who painted  idealised early scenes from America’s Far West was influenced by Turner. p675

Thomas Eakins was influenced by Rembrandt, Velazquez and Ribera (e.g. The Gross Clinic, 1875).

Critics, thinkers and historians

Classification of natural species by Linnaeus, (Carl von Linn, 1707-78) & others lead them to realise they were part of evolution, theories put forward by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) & Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), Charles Darwin’s grandad, (classification of species) and later Charles Darwin (evolution of species). Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), ‘greatest thinker of the time’, gave new direction to philosophy away from rational deduction to analysis of general concepts. This heralded an end to philosophy being a branch of natural science. p637 Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) helped develop a new German philosophy based on ideas of nationalism & concept of Germaness/Deutschheit.

Goethe, greatest creative writer of the time, wrote essay in 1799 on Wincklemann, he deplored the movement of Romantic philosophy. The Romantics included poet, art critic & writer Charles Boudelaire (1821-67), Byron was the ‘most famous poet of the day’ p648, Victor Hugo (1802-85) was the leader of French Romantic Literature.

Karl Marx (1818-83) & Friedrich Hegel (1820-95) wrote the Communist Manifesto, London 1848, which called for ‘the forceable overthrow of all existing social conditions’. Concerned with theoretical certainties rather than rights of man or systems of gov. Robert Owen (1771-1858) wrote factory essays, involved in trade unionism and co-operative movement. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was his French contemporary. Charles Dickens (1812-70) was a famous 19thC author.

Poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850) wrote The Prelude, vividly remembered ‘spots of time‘ from childhood that ‘retain a renovating virtue‘ p654.

German poet Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) wrote about Delacroix’s Liberty leading the people for the Salon.

German critic and architect Heinrich Hubsch (1781-1841) wrote ‘In Which Style Should we Build’, 1828, defining Romantic architecture, no singular overall style but dictates each architectural design must be one style. Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841) was a brilliant architect who tried pretty much all the styles looking for one of his own.

Anti-papist, social reformer, writer & art critic John Ruskin (1819-1900) was a perceptive admirer of Turner. He also gave Pugin’s views of Gothic revival more exposure.

An essay by Nikolai Chernysheskii (1828-89) started a Russian Realist movement in 1855. p673 Lev Nicolayevich Tolstoy was Russian thinker, social reformer & novelist.

American artist & theorist, Asher B Durand (1796-1886) wrote ‘Letters on Landscape Painting’ (New York 1855) about work of Hudson River painters including Thomas Cole (1801-48). Historian Francis Parkman (1823-93) wrote about the American wilderness. Henry David Thoreau (1817-62) was not pleased by its steady erosion. p675 Virginian writer, Moncure F. Conway (1832-1907), was an outspoken critic of Slavery.

French photographer Gaspard-Felix Tournachon/Nadar (1820-1910) wrote about photography theory in 1856. p682

Photographer Julia Margaret Cameron took photos of the poet Tennyson, Victorian ‘sage’ Carlyle and the astronomer Herschel. p683

American James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851) wrote the Leatherstocking novels, enjoyed around the time that artist turned politician George Caleb Bingham painted Fur Traders descending the Missouri, 1885.


The notes are much too long for the assignment, longer than the previous one but it was a bigger chapter with more underlying factors which I wanted to understand and remember but, again, since they are for my personal reference, at this stage it doesn’t matter too much, I’ll do a bit more of the section and shorten them at the end when I have all three chapters covered. I think much of the early century info on Napoleon will collapse down nicely when this and the last chapter are written up together. Also, many of the critical facts could have been put into multiple sections so with the template as it is there seems to be quite a bit of crossover, although I tried to avoid duplication. I have deliberately written way more notes that required for the assignment so that I can lift them out into separate blog posts of important bits I’d like to develop further with additional research if time permits.

I noticed that women as allegorical symbols of strength, revolution and liberty cropped up in pictures again and again, eg Sabine Women by JL David, Eugène Delacroix’s The 28th July: Liberty Leading the People and Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi and of course the statue of liberty in the US.

The impulse to modernity was expressed in the nineteenth century in three main ways: through Romanticism, the realism of Courbet and the work of the Impressionists.(course notes p119)

Looking forward to the assignment, Gericault’s famous The Raft of the Medusa, 1819, might be good one for annotation, p646/7? Or perhaps Goya’s The 3rd of May 1808, 1814, info p645/6). Another one for consideration that caught my eye was Napolean in the Plague House at Jaffa, 1804 by Gros p643



Honour, H & Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. (7th Ed), London, Laurence King Publishing



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